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Table 2 Comparative outcomes of shoulder static range of motion and throwing speed

From: Superior training efficacy of beginning movement load training for the baseball throwers

  Study group Control group p valuea Effect size
(1) Flexion (°)
 Pre-training 179 ± 5 (160–180) 179 ± 2 (170–180) 0.392 0.26
 Post-training 180 ± 0 (180) 180 ± 0 (180) 0.357  
 p valueb 0.234 0.186   
 Effect size 0.20 0.50   
(2) Extension (°)
 Pre-training 64 ± 10 (50–95) 61 ± 14 (35–100) 0.176 0.25
 Post-training 70 ± 9 (55–90) 62 ± 10 (40–70) 0.012  
 p valueb 0.007 0.708   
 Effect size 0.78 0.08   
(3) Abduction (°)
 Pre-training 179 ± 7 (150–180) 179 ± 5 (160–180) 0.368 0.16
 Post-training 180 ± 0 (180) 180 ± 1 (175–180) 0.343  
 p valueb 0.330 0.287   
 Effect size 0.14 0.20   
(4) Adduction (°)
 Pre-training 42 ± 11 (30–70) 44 ± 10 (30–60) 0.893 0.19
 Post-training 49 ± 11 (35–75) 52 ± 13 (30–85) 0.878  
 p valueb 0.002 0.042   
 Effect size 0.81 0.52   
(5) Internal rotation
 Pre-training 70 ± 15 (50–100) 68 ± 16 (40–110) 0.477 0.13
 Post-training 86 ± 16 (50–115) 75 ± 14 (50–100) 0.018  
 p valueb < 0.001 0.044   
 Effect size 1.06 0.46   
(6) External rotation
 Pre-training 115 ± 16 (80–140) 113 ± 20 (40–140) 0.393 0.11
 Post-training 120 ± 16 (85–145) 111 ± 12 (75–125) 0.044  
 p valueb < 0.001 0.663   
 Effect size 1.56 0.10   
(7) Speed (KPH)
 Pre-training 114 ± 9 (98–128) 108 ± 9 (90–125) 0.105 0.67
 Post-training 117 ± 10 (100–132) 109 ± 10 (94–130) 0.040  
 p valueb < 0.001 0.224   
 Effect size 1.09 0.16   
  1. ap value: comparison between Study group and Control group was analyzed using Bayesian inference statistics
  2. bp value: comparison between the pre-training and post-training conditions was analyzed using Bayesian inference statistics