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Table 1 Categorical (Chi square test for gender, Fishers test for others—for comparisons between groups) and continuous (T-tests and Wilcoxon for normal and non-normal distributions) baseline characteristics by group: HA versus saline

From: Hyaluronic acid injections for chronic tennis elbow

Parameter Category Group HA
N (%)
Group saline
N (%)
P-value
Age (years)* Age 51.9 (SD 10.6) 52.9 (SD 8.9) 0.800
Gender Female 7 /17 (41.2) 3 /13 (23.1) 0.297
  Male 10 /17 (58.8) 10 /13 (76.9)  
Handedness Left 1 /17 (5.9) 1 /14 (7.1) 1.00
  Right 16 /17 (94.1) 13 /14 (92.9)  
Occupation Manual 3 /17 (17.6) 4 /14 (28.6) 0.115
  Office 13 /17 (76.5) 6 /14 (42.9)  
  Retired 1 /17 (5.9) 4 /14 (28.6)  
BMI BMI 25.9 (SD 3.2) 27.1 (SD 4.1) 0.463
Painful side Left 8 /16 (50.0) 7 /14 (50.0) 1.00
  Right 8 /16 (50.0) 7 /14 (50.0)  
Pain Duration (months) Pain Duration 28.1 (SD 22.0) 51.4 (SD 59.9) 0.936
VAS pain (in the past week how much pain do you feel when gripping something—on average?) VAS pain 76.4 (SD 12.1) 72.1 (SD 11.9) 0.348
PRTEE Score PRTEE 67.0 (SD 14.6) 71.9 (SD 14.5) 0.357
QuickDASH QuickDASH 53.7 (SD 18.90 58.8 (SD 13.1) 0.408
Racquet sports No 15 /17 (88.2) 13 /14 (92.9) 1.00
  Yes 2 /17 (11.8) 1 /14 (7.1)  
  1. HA—Hyaluronic Acid, PRTEE—patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation, QuickDASH—Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score, VAS—Visual Analog Score
  2. *T test