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Table 1 Mean ± standard deviation of measurement variables during squat, counter movement, and rebound jumps under three conditions and their level of statistical significance

From: The effect of two types of ankle orthoses on the repetitive rebound jump performance

  No-orthosis orthosis 1 orthosis 2 p-valuea effect size (f) significanceb
Squat jump
Jump height, cm 26.6 ± 5.2 26.5 ± 5.3 25.3 ± 5.5 0.003 0.594 no-orthosis, 1 vs 2
RFD, N/s 2602 ± 1158 2798 ± 1182 2682 ± 1203 0.633 0.157  
rRFD, N/kg/s 42.9 ± 20.3 46.3 ± 19.4 45.1 ± 23.3 0.643 0.153  
Vertical impulse, Ns 166.1 ± 49.2 162.5 ± 44.9 168.4 ± 54.6 0.417 0.217  
PeakPower, W 2356 ± 706 2339 ± 676 2274 ± 687 0.007 0.543 no-orthosis vs 2
VGRFmax, N 1421 ± 308 1424 ± 277 1428 ± 286 0.939 0.055  
rVGRFmax, N/kg 23.0 ± 2.2 23.1 ± 2.1 23.2 ± 2.3 0.831 0.101  
Maximum dorsiflexion angle, degree 120.6 ± 5.5 125.4 ± 6.8 127.3 ± 5.0  < 0.001 0.811 no-orthosis vs 1, 2
Plantarflexion angle at toe off, degree 171.2 ± 5.8 167.1 ± 6.9 163.3 ± 4.5  < 0.001 1.077 no-orthosis vs 1 vs 2
ROM, degree 50.3 ± 4.7 41.6 ± 5.4 35.8 ± 3.9  < 0.001 2.409 no-orthosis vs 1 vs 2
Countermovement jump
Jump height, cm 28.3 ± 5.6 28.3 ± 5.5 27.8 ± 5.9 N/A N/A  
RFD, N/s 3277 ± 1878 2971 ± 1615 3062 ± 1877 N/A N/A  
rRFD, N/kg/s 53.9 ± 29.2 49.2 ± 26.4 50.7 ± 30.5 N/A N/A  
Vertical impulse, Ns 157.4 ± 33.4 141.2 ± 37.5 154.8 ± 38.8 N/A N/A  
PeakPower, W 2459 ± 742 2448 ± 705 2423 ± 718 N/A N/A  
VGRFmax, N 1391 ± 299 1356 ± 271 1378 ± 284 N/A N/A  
rVGRFmax, N/kg 22.5 ± 2.0 22.0 ± 2.1 22.4 ± 2.6 N/A N/A  
Maximum dorsiflexion angle, degree 117.6 ± 7.6 122.7 ± 6.7 124.5 ± 6.1  < 0.001 0.703 no-orthosis vs 1, 2
Plantarflexion angle at toe off, degree 170.9 ± 6.3 167.3 ± 6.7 163.9 ± 4.6  < 0.001 0.883 no-orthosis vs 1 vs 2
ROM, degree 53.3 ± 5.5 44.5 ± 5.6 39.3 ± 3.8  < 0.001 1.940 no-orthosis vs 1 vs 2
Repetitive rebound jump
Jump height, cm 26.3 ± 6.6 26.0 ± 7.2 25.1 ± 6.1 N/A N/A  
contact time, s 0.22 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.08 N/A N/A  
Rebound jump index, m/s 1.26 ± 0.34 1.24 ± 0.31 1.18 ± 0.31 N/A N/A  
Maximum dorsiflexion angle, degree 124.9 ± 8.4 128.8 ± 7.4 131.4 ± 6.8  < 0.001 1.784 no-orthosis vs 1, 2
Plantarflexion angle at toe off, degree 170.0 ± 7.6 165.9 ± 7.4 163.8 ± 4.2  < 0.001 1.652 no-orthosis vs 1, 2
Range of motion, degree 44.9 ± 7.5 36.8 ± 6.0 32.4 ± 5.4  < 0.001 1.825 no-orthosis vs 1 vs 2
  1. a: P-values indicate the results of the statistical analysis of pairwise comparisons. RFD Rate of force development; rRFD Relative rate of force development; VGRFmax Maximum vertical ground reaction force; rVGRFmax Relative maximum vertical ground reaction force; ROM range of motion. b: This significance was obtained from the multiple comparison with the Bonferroni correction and described the large and small relationships that were less than p < 0.05. P-values were calculated using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures (no-orthosis, orthosis 1, and orthosis 2).