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Table 2 Mean and standard deviation of the right arm muscles strength in three groups of massage, ROM exercises, and control at different times

From: A randomized controlled clinical trial of the effects of range of motion exercises and massage on muscle strength in critically ill patients

Right arm muscles strength (kg) Group
Massage ROM exercises Control
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
T1 8.49 2.67 9.84 2.07 10.89 2.12
T2 8.64 2.66 10.10 2.06 10.70 2.16
T3 8.78 2.62 10.47 2.09 10.34 2.15
Mean difference (T3–T1) 0.29 0.23 0.63 0.17 − 0.55 0.28
Source of variance Sum of squares Degree of freedom F P value Effect size
Time 0.69 1.67 16.94  < 0.001 0.16
Group * time 11.25 3.35 138.03  < 0.001 0.76
Group 195.28 2 6.14 0.003 0.12
Error 1382.42 87    
  1. ROM, Range of motion; SD, Standard deviation; T1, Before intervention; T2, During intervention, T3, After intervention