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Table 5 Mean and standard deviation of the left leg muscles strength in three groups of massage, ROM exercises and control at different times

From: A randomized controlled clinical trial of the effects of range of motion exercises and massage on muscle strength in critically ill patients

Left leg muscles strength (kg) Group
Massage ROM exercise Control
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
T1 10.82 2.06 11.64 1.52 11.42 1.78
T2 10.93 2.08 11.89 1.49 11.01 1.93
T3 11.08 2.05 12.18 1.59 10.70 1.96
Mean difference (T3–T1) 0.26 0.20 0.54 0.19 − 0.71 0.29
Source of variance Sum of squares Degree of freedom F P value Effect size
Time 0.08 2 1.73 0.18 0.02
Group * time 12.94 4 133.74  < 0.001 0.76
Group 49.83 2 2.46 0.09 0.05
Error 881.98 87    
  1. ROM, Range of motion; SD, Standard deviation; T1, Before intervention; T2, During intervention; T3, After intervention