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Table 4 Differences between U13 and U15 handball players in lower body performance variables

From: Physical fitness and throwing speed in U13 versus U15 male handball players

  U13 U15 AGE Effect size
Lower body performance
CMJ height (cm) 23.6 ± 5.0 33.5 ± 5.9 82.328 (< 0.001)* 1.86 (1.39; 2.32)
3H-D (m) 4.28 ± 0.63 5.83 ± 0.74 42.184 (< 0.001)* 2.33 (1.83; 2.83)
3H-ND (m) 4.33 ± 0.68 5.81 ± 0.68 39.370 (< 0.001)* 2.15 (1.67; 2.64)
10-m (s) 1.97 ± 0.13 1.76 ± 0.08 69.013 (< 0.001)* − 1.70 (− 2.15; − 1.24)
20-m (s) 3.56 ± 0.27 3.13 ± 0.17 5.388 (0.022)* − 1.75 (− 2.21; − 1.29)
COD (s) 3.00 ± 0.23 2.83 ± 0.13 2.068 (0.153)* − 0.80 (− 1.22; − 0.39)
CODdef (s) 1.03 ± 0.22 1.07 ± 0.12 1.163 (0.283) 0.22 (− 0.19; 0.62)
Hip isometric strength
 Dominant side
  ABD (N) 110.9 ± 31.2 143.2 ± 29.7 0.031 (0.577)* 1.05 (0.62; 1.47)
  Norm-ABD (N/kg) 2.6 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 0.7 25.180 (< 0.001)* 1.26 (0.82; 1.69)
  ADD (N) 109.4 ± 32.5 149.7 ± 38.1 0.035 (0.853)* 1.17 (0.74; 1.60)
  Norm-ADD (N/kg) 2.6 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.9 29.602 (< 0.001)* 1.10 (0.67; 1.53)
 Non-dominant side
  ABD (N) 108.4 ± 31.5 144.2 ± 32.7 0.106 (0.745)* 1.12 (0.69; 1.54)
  Norm-ABD (N/kg) 2.6 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 0.8 33.690 (< 0.001)* 1.14 (0.71; 1.57)
  ADD (N) 102.5 ± 25.6 144.6 ± 33.3 1.437 (0.233)* 1.50 (1.05; 1.94)
  Norm-ADD (N/kg) 2.4 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.8 53.463 (< 0.001)* 1.06 (0.64; 1.49)
Ratio ADD/ABD
 D 1.00 ± 0.19 1.05 ± 0.14 1.653 (0.201) 0.25 (0.16; 0.65)
 ND 0.97 ± 0.20 1.01 ± 0.11 0.877 (0.351) 0.20 (0.21; 0.60)
  1. One-way independent measures ANOVA using Age as between subject factor.* One-way independent measures ANCOVAs with Age as between subject factor and maturity offset as a covariate. Main effects of age are presented as F values (p). Effect sizes were calculated as Hedge’s g. Positive effect sizes denote that U15 showed better performances than U13. CMJ: countermovement jump; 3H-D: triple leg hop test with the dominant leg; 3H-ND: triple leg hop test with the non-dominant leg; COD: change of direction test; CODdef: COD deficit; D: dominant side; ND: Non-dominant side