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  1. Unilateral resistance training increases the strength of the contralateral non-trained homologous muscles known as the cross-education effect. We tested the hypothesis that unilateral eccentric resistance trai...

    Authors: Shigeru Sato, Riku Yoshida, Ryosuke Kiyono, Kaoru Yahata, Koki Yasaka, Kazunori Nosaka and Masatoshi Nakamura
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:105
  2. People worldwide have a high intake of caffeine. Active adults are among the group of people who have always been interested in caffeine as an ergogenic aid. This study aims at examining the association betwee...

    Authors: Zeina Tayba, Yonna Sacre, Randa Attieh and Haider Mannan
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:104
  3. Previous studies have typically measured velocity and power parameters during the push-up, either using one or two force platforms. The purpose of the study was to compare the force, velocity, and power parame...

    Authors: Zhanxin Sha and Boyi Dai
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:103
  4. This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CC16, SP-D, and CC16/SP-D ratio) and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC r...

    Authors: Leila Nikniaz, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Hooman Nateghian, Zeinab Nikniaz, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Hadi Pourmanaf
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:102
  5. Lumbopelvic control (LPC) has recently been associated with function, kinesiology, and load distribution on the limb. However, poor LPC has not been studied as a risk factor for lower limb injury in sports req...

    Authors: Paria Fadaei Dehcheshmeh, Farzaneh Gandomi and Nicola Maffulli
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:101

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:108

  6. People with physical disabilities (PWPD) have limited opportunities to participate in sport activities. Sitting light volleyball (SLVB) is an adapted sport that combines light volleyball and paralympic sitting...

    Authors: Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, William Chu and Kwok Ng
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:100
  7. Interoception refers to the body’s physiological responses that occur in response to emotions. This phenomenon influences decision-making, an important cognitive ability that affects the maintenance of an exer...

    Authors: Yusaku Amaya, Tetsuya Abe, Kenji Kanbara, Hisaharu Shizuma, Yasushi Akiyama and Mikihiko Fukunaga
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:99
  8. The role of sports pharmacists is being emphasized in international athletic events. This study aimed to describe the pharmacy services for the 2019 Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters C...

    Authors: In Kyu Yang, Eun Ok Shin, Dong Gyun Kim, Hyun Cheol Jung, Kwang Joon Kim and Sung Hwan Ki
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:98
  9. Several studies have observed the contribution of chronological age, biological maturation, and anthropometric characteristics to sprinting performance in young soccer players. Nevertheless, there are no studi...

    Authors: Elena Mainer-Pardos, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Hadi Nobari, Demetrio Lozano and Jorge Pérez-Gómez
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:97
  10. Severe rapid weight loss (RWL) induces a decrease in muscle glycogen (mGly). Nevertheless, adequate carbohydrate intake after RWL has not been reported to optimize muscle glycogen following a weigh-in the even...

    Authors: Emi Kondo, Keisuke Shiose, Takuya Osawa, Keiko Motonaga, Akiko Kamei, Kohei Nakajima, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Takahiro Wada, Shigeki Nishiguchi and Hideyuki Takahashi
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:96
  11. Regular participation in exercise is important for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore, we implemented a personalized, web-based exercise intervention over the course of one year for people with CF. Th...

    Authors: Barlo Hillen, Perikles Simon, Sebastian Schlotter, Oliver Nitsche, Viola Bähner, Krystyna Poplawska and Daniel Pfirrmann
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:95
  12. This study aimed to compare the match running performance between bottom- and top-ranked teams in professional soccer players over the 2020 season of the Brazilian National 2nd Division League. In addition, th...

    Authors: Rodrigo Aquino, Luiz Guilherme Gonçalves, Marcos Galgaro, Thiago Santi Maria, Eduardo Rostaiser, Alejandro Pastor, Hadi Nobari, Gabriel Rodrigues Garcia, Maxwell Viana Moraes-Neto and Fábio Yuzo Nakamura
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:93
  13. This study sought to determine the effects of a 6-week neuromuscular training (NMT) and NMT plus external focus (NMT plus EF) programs on trunk and lower extremity inter-segmental movement coordination in acti...

    Authors: Bahram Sheikhi, Amir Letafatkar, Abbey C. Thomas and Kevin R. Ford
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:92
  14. Tendinopathy is a common clinical condition that can significantly affect a person’s physical function and quality of life. Despite exercise therapy being the mainstay of tendinopathy management, there are man...

    Authors: Nicholas Tripodi, Jack Feehan, Maja Husaric, Fotios Sidiroglou and Vasso Apostolopoulos
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:91
  15. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, muscle soreness, and reductions in muscle function. Cocoa flavanols (CF) are (poly)phenols with antioxidant and anti-...

    Authors: Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper and Robert J. Naughton
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:90
  16. The bilateral limb deficit (BLD) phenomenon suggests that lower forces are produced with bilateral limb contractions compared to the summed force produced when the same muscles are contracted unilaterally. Whi...

    Authors: Emily Whitcomb, Oscar Ortiz, Jacqueline Toner and Usha Kuruganti
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:89
  17. Handball referees play an important role during a handball match. Surprisingly, not much is known about their sports-related injuries and resulting pain, therefore the purpose of our study was to focus on inju...

    Authors: Jens Heyn and Johannes Fleckenstein
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:88
  18. Chronic low back pain (CLBP), which has a close relationship with lumbar muscle degeneration, can be effectively treated by exercise therapy, and yoga has been widely accepted by clinicians and patients with C...

    Authors: Wenfen Liu, Jiachun Li, Xiang Zhou, Ningning Chen, Hui Ouyang, Zuofeng Xu and Yongsheng Zhu
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:87
  19. The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in everyday and sports activities. Approximately 20–40 % of patients with LAS develop a chronic ankle instability (CAI). The underlying mechani...

    Authors: Christian Raeder, Janina Tennler, Arthur Praetorius, Tobias Ohmann and Christian Schoepp
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:86
  20. Assessing lactate (LT) or anaerobic thresholds (AT) in athletes is an important tool to control training intensities and to estimate individual performance levels. Previously we demonstrated that ECG-based ass...

    Authors: Dominik Schüttler, Simone Krammer, Lukas von Stülpnagel, Lauren Sams, Axel Bauer, Wolfgang Hamm and Stefan Brunner
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:85
  21. Little is known about the musculoskeletal (MSK) exam providers use during the Preparticipation Physical Examination (PPE). The primary aims of this study were to determine current practice with regards to the ...

    Authors: Connor Corrente, Matthew Silvis, Joseph Murphy, Robert Gallo and Cayce Onks
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:84
  22. Balance disorders are common in patients with neurological or vestibular diseases. Telerehabilitation program is a treatment to be as safe as conventional treatment. One of the most used methods to perform tel...

    Authors: Marcos Maldonado-Díaz, Patricia Vargas, Ricardo Vasquez, Felipe Gonzalez-Seguel, Betel Rivero, Viviane Hidalgo-Cabalín and Tania Gutierrez-Panchana
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:83
  23. The Square Stepping Exercise (SSE) is an exercise training program incorporating cognitive and physical exercise components, which was originally developed for older adults to reduce falling risks. SSE’s poten...

    Authors: Masato Kawabata, Su Ren Gan, Gint Goh, Siti Aisha Binte Omar, Ivan T. F. Oh, Wan Qi Wee and Tomohiro Okura
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:82
  24. Representation of people with disabilities in fitness centres is lacking, despite initiatives to promote inclusion mainly in the UK and USA. Success creating these inclusive spaces is mixed and few were crafte...

    Authors: Helene Nikolajsen, Emma Victoria Richardson, Louise Fleng Sandal, Birgit Juul-Kristensen and Jens Troelsen
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:81
  25. Even though the importance of preparing patients for a surgical event is recognized, there are still gaps about the benefit of improving functional capacity by walking during the waiting time among patients sc...

    Authors: Olga L. Cortés, Mauricio Herrera-Galindo, Claudia Becerra, Mónica Rincón-Roncancio, Camilo Povea-Combariza and Maribel Esparza-Bohorquez
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:80
  26. Rehabilitation plays an important role in the management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and current guidelines recommend implementation of a monitored individualized exercise training p...

    Authors: Mariusz Wojciuk, Mariusz Ciolkiewicz, Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Sylwia Chwiesko-Minarowska, Emilia Sawicka, Katarzyna Ptaszynska-Kopczynska and Karol Kaminski
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:79
  27. Exercise is often used to obtain a negative energy balance. However, its effects on body weight reduction are usually below expectations. One possible explanation is a reduction in spontaneous physical activit...

    Authors: Ana Carolina Silvares Quintanilha, Izabelle Dias Benfato, Robson Luiz Oliveira Santos, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes and Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:78
  28. The fact that kinesio tape may be capable to enhance muscle power would qualify it as practical tool to be considered during passive warm-up (WU) or coupled with active WU processes prior to power-based perfor...

    Authors: Alessio Rossi, Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Giampietro Alberti, Fabio Esposito, Fabio D’Angelo and Athos Trecroci
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:77
  29. Studies investigating postural orientation in uninjured youth athletes are scarce. Understanding how postural orientation during functional performance tests change with age in uninjured athletes has the poten...

    Authors: Sofia Ryman Augustsson, Jenny Nae, Magnus Karlsson, Tomas Peterson, Per Wollmer and Eva Ageberg
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:76
  30. To evaluate cycling participation and identify barriers and facilitators related to cycling participation in people with a lower limb amputation (LLA) in the Netherlands.

    Authors: Jutamanee Poonsiri, Rienk Dekker, Pieter U. Dijkstra, Juha M. Hijmans and Jan H. B. Geertzen
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:75
  31. Authors: Miyuki Hori, Tadashi Suga, Masafumi Terada, Takahiro Tanaka, Yuki Kusagawa, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano and Tadao Isaka
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:74

    The original article was published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:67

  32. Most injuries in track and field are caused by overuse with conflicting reports concerning the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how biomechanical and clinical factors relate to ...

    Authors: Andreas Lundberg Zachrisson, Andreas Ivarsson, Pia Desai, Jon Karlsson and Stefan Grau
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:73
  33. The Unilateral Seated Shot-Put Test (USSPT) consists of pushing an overweight ball as far as possible to assess upper extremity power unilaterally and bilateral symmetry. Literature however reports various bod...

    Authors: Matthieu Degot, Yoann Blache, Grégory Vigne, Gabriel Franger, Lionel Neyton and Isabelle Rogowski
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:72
  34. The “FIFA 11 + Shoulder” programme has been reported to reduce the incidence of upper extremity injuries among soccer goalkeepers. It has also been recommended for overhead sports. The purpose of this study wa...

    Authors: Mostafa Zarei, Saeed Eshghi and Mahdi Hosseinzadeh
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:71
  35. The knowledge of the long-term consequences of covid-19 is limited. In patients, symptoms such as fatigue, decreased physical, psychological, and cognitive function, and nutritional problems have been reported...

    Authors: E. Rydwik, L. Anmyr, M. Regardt, A. McAllister, R. Zarenoe, E. Åkerman, Y. Orrevall, M. Bragesjö, O. Dahl, M. K. Kemani, L. Nordstrand, U. Ekman, L. Holmström and M. Nygren-Bonnier
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:70
  36. Regular physical activity and exercise provide many health benefits. These health benefits are mediated in large part through cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength. As most individuals have not had a...

    Authors: James T. Langland, Neeraj Sathnur, Qi Wang and Andrew P. J. Olson
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:69
  37. Bodybuilding is a competitive endeavor where a combination of muscle size, symmetry, “conditioning” (low body fat levels), and stage presentation are judged. Success in bodybuilding requires that competitors a...

    Authors: Guillermo Escalante, Scott W. Stevenson, Christopher Barakat, Alan A. Aragon and Brad J. Schoenfeld
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:68
  38. This study examined the relationships of knee extensor strength and quadriceps femoris size with sprint performance in sprinters.

    Authors: Miyuki Hori, Tadashi Suga, Masafumi Terada, Takahiro Tanaka, Yuki Kusagawa, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano and Tadao Isaka
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:67

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:74

  39. Sports should endeavour to provide inclusive opportunities for all people to participate. More evidence is required to understand who joins sports clubs and what keeps participants engaged throughout their lif...

    Authors: Bridget C. Foley, Catriona Rose, Katherine B. Owen and Lindsey J. Reece
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:59
  40. The Single Leg Squat test (SLS) is a common tool used in clinical examination to set and evaluate rehabilitation goals, but there is not one established SLS test used in the clinic. Based on previous scientifi...

    Authors: John Ressman, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas Grooten and Eva Rasmussen-Barr
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:66
  41. Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) is a polyatomic ion, which is present in large quantities in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, and has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a potential health-pr...

    Authors: Oliver M. Shannon, Chris Easton, Anthony I. Shepherd, Mario Siervo, Stephen J. Bailey and Tom Clifford
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:65
  42. American football players need the ability to provide maximal muscular power in a modicum of time. Postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE), which is characterized by an acute improvement of a performance...

    Authors: Robert Bielitzki, Daniel Hamacher and Astrid Zech
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:64
  43. There is limited information on the physique attributes of female netball players from the highest playing standards and the typical body composition changes that occur with training and competition in these a...

    Authors: Luke Hogarth, Ava Farley, Max McKenzie, Brendan Burkett and Mark McKean
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:63
  44. This study was designed to investigate effects of Kinesiotape (KT) with closed basket weave method and lace-up braces (LB) on the vertical time to stabilization, peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF), an...

    Authors: Ali Yalfani and Zahra Raeisi
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:62
  45. Compression garments are generally used for their potential benefits in exercise performance and post-exercise recovery. Previous studies show that compression sleeves worn at the elbow change neuromuscular co...

    Authors: Yao Sun, Bridget Munro and E. Paul Zehr
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:61
  46. Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are leading causes of mortality. These conditions are also known as chronic diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. Physical activity (PA) is a main factor to...

    Authors: Giovanni Iolascon, Francesca Gimigliano, Gioconda Di Pietro, Antimo Moretti, Marco Paoletta, Matteo Rivezzi, Alessandro Distante and Prisco Piscitelli
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:60
  47. Throughout the ecosystem of sport, women have been and continue to be underrepresented at all levels compared to men. The capacity of community-level sport is heavily reliant on the many non-player roles inclu...

    Authors: R Eime, M Charity, B. C Foley, J Fowlie and L. J Reece
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:58
  48. One potential reason for disparate outcomes of exercise for Achilles tendinopathy is poor knowledge about whether exercise parameters (i.e. different exercise doses) influence outcome. Whether parameters that ...

    Authors: Fatmah Hasani, Terry Haines, Shannon E. Munteanu, Peter Schoch, Bill Vicenzino and Peter Malliaras
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:57
  49. We assessed the effects of gender, in association with a four-week small-sided games (SSGs) training program, during Ramadan intermitting fasting (RIF) on changes in psychometric and physiological markers in p...

    Authors: Seifeddine Brini, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman, Cain C. T. Clark, Sghaeir Zouita, Anthony C. Hackney, Karuppasamy Govindasamy, Urs Granacher and Hassane Zouhal
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:56

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