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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Bovine colostrum supplementation and upper respiratory symptoms during exercise training: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study (country) Sample size Age, years Proportion of males Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Intervention, dose, frequency/timing, duration, diluter Placebo
Crooks et al. 2006 [16]
(New Zealand)
BC: 18
PLA: 17
Median (range)
BC: males, 46 (35–57),
  females, 43 (30–53)
0.48 Pack runs ≥ 1 week, marathon training over last 5 years, age < 60 year Lactose intolerant, allergy to cows milk, whey-protein supplements, treatment for any diagnosed condition Oral BC (Immulac, NZMP Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand), 26 g of powdered sachets/day corresponding to 10 g of BC, daily, 12 weeks, chocolate powder with 125 ml water Skim milk matched for equivalent digestible protein content. Flavours and colours added to match BC
PLA: males, 48 (36–56)
  females, 51 (41–58)
Crooks et al. 2010 [17]
(New Zealand)
BC: 12
PLA: 13
Mean ± standard error
BC: males, 17 ± 1
  females, 20 ± 1
0.57 Participating in training program prior to The Auckland Swimming Championships Lactose intolerant, allergy to cows milk, whey-protein, immunological-modulating supplements, treatment for any diagnosed condition Oral BC (Immulac, NZMP Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand), 52 g of powdered sachets/day corresponding to 20 g of BC, 10 g morning & evening, 10 weeks, 125 ml water Skim milk powder, matched for equivalent protein, fat and carbohydrate content
PLA: males, 19 ± 1,
  females, 18 ± 1
Jones et al. 2014 [14]
(Wales)
BC: 25
PLA: 28
Mean ± standard deviation
BC: 31 ± 14
PLA: 32 ± 13
1.00 ≥3 h moderate-vigorous endurance exercise/week Smoker, medication or other supplements, infectious illness in 4 weeks prior to study Oral BC (Neovite, UK, London), 20 g/day, 10 g with morning & evening meal, 12 weeks Isoenergetic/isomacronutrient PLA as described elsewhere
Shing et al. 2007 [18]
(Australia)
BC: 14
PLA: 15
Mean ± standard error
BC: 29 ± 1
PLA: 27 ± 2
1.00 Cyclists racing competitively ≥ 2 months, consistent training volumes ≥ 2 months Dietary supplements 1 month prior to study Oral BC (Numico Research Australia, South Australia, Australia), 10 g/day, morning, 8 week 1 day, 50 ml water + 100 ml milk Whey protein (Alacen 80; Fonterra Co-op group Limited, Auckland, New Zealand)
Shing et al. 2013 [19]
(Australia)
BC: 4
PLA: 6
Mean ± standard error 
BC: 22 ± 3
PLA: 23 ± 2
1.00 Cyclists racing competitively ≥3 months. Consistent training volumes ≥ 2 months None reported Oral BC (Numico Research Australia, South Australia, Australia), 10 g/day, morning, 8 weeks and 5 days, 50 ml water + 100 ml milk Whey protein concentrate (Alacen 80; Fonterra Co-op group Limited, Auckland, New Zealand)
  1. BC bovine colostrum, PLA placebo