Bastholt P: Professional tennis (ATP tour) and number of medical treatments in relation to type of surface. Med Sci Tennis. 2000, 5 (2): [http://www.stms.nl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=881&Itemid=263]
Hainline B: Low back injury. Clin Sports Med. 1995, 14: 241-265.
Lundin O, Hellstrom M, Nilsson I, Sward L: Back pain and radiological changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of athletes. A long-term follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001, 11: 103-109. 10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.011002103.x.
Marks MR, Haas SS, Wiesel SW: Low back pain in the competitive tennis player. Clin Sports Med. 1988, 7: 277-287.
Sward L, Hellstrom M, Jacobsson B, Peterson L: Back pain and radiologic changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of athletes. Spine. 1990, 15: 124-129. 10.1097/00007632-199002000-00015.
Vad VB, Gebeh A, Dines D, Altchek D, Norris B: Hip and shoulder internal rotation range of motion deficits in professional tennis players. J Sci Med Sport. 2003, 6: 71-75. 10.1016/S1440-2440(03)80010-5.
Winge S, Jorgensen U, Lassen NA: Epidemiology of injuries in Danish championship tennis. Int J Sports Med. 1989, 10: 368-371. 10.1055/s-2007-1024930.
Kelsey JL, White AA: Epidemiology and impact of low-back pain. Spine. 1980, 5: 133-142. 10.1097/00007632-198003000-00007.
Congeni J, McCulloch J, Swanson K: Lumbar spondylolysis. A study of natural progression in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1997, 25: 248-253. 10.1177/036354659702500220.
Cyron BM, Hutton WC: Variations in the amount and distribution of cortical bone across the partes interarticulares of L5. A predisposing factor in spondylolysis?. Spine. 1979, 4: 163-167. 10.1097/00007632-197903000-00013.
Chow JW, Carlton LG, Lim YT, Chae WS, Shim JH, Kuenster AF, Kokubun K: Comparing the pre- and post-impact ball and racquet kinematics of elite tennis players' first and second serves: a preliminary study. J Sports Sci. 2003, 21: 529-537. 10.1080/0264041031000101908.
Saal JA: Tennis. The Spine in Sports. Edited by: Watkins RG. 1996, St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 499-504.
Alyas F, Turner M, Connell D: MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic, adolescent, elite tennis players. Br J Sports Med. 2007, 41: 836-841. 10.1136/bjsm.2007.037747.
Davis KG, Marras WS: The effects of motion on trunk biomechanics. Clin Biomech. 2000, 15: 703-717. 10.1016/S0268-0033(00)00035-8.
Elliott BC: Biomechanics of the serve in tennis. A biomedical perspective. Sports Med. 1988, 6: 285-294. 10.2165/00007256-198806050-00004.
Elliott B, Marsh T, Blanksby B: A three-dimensional cinematographic analysis of the tennis serve. Int J Sport Biomech. 1986, 2: 260-271.
Elliott BC: Spin and the power serve in tennis. J Hum Movem Stud. 1983, 9: 97-104.
Van Gheluwe B, Hebbelinck M: The kinematics of the service movement in tennis: A three-dimensional cinematographical approach. Biomechanics IX. Edited by: Winter D, Norman R, Wells R, Hayes KC, Patla AE. 1983, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 521-526.
Reid M, Chow JW, Crespo M: Muscle activity: An indicator for training. Biomechanics of Advanced Tennis Coaching. Edited by: Elliott B, Reid M, Crespo M. 2003, London: International Tennis Federation, 109-137.
Cook TM, Mann S, Lovested GE: Dynamic comparison of the two-hand stoop and assisted one-hand lift methods. J Safety Res. 1990, 21: 53-59. 10.1016/0022-4375(90)90002-S.
Delitto RS, Rose SJ: An electromyographic analysis of two techniques for squat lifting and lowering. Phys Ther. 1992, 72: 438-448.
McGill SM: Electromyographic activity of the abdominal and low back musculature during the generation of isometric and dynamic axial trunk torque: implications for lumbar mechanics. J Orthop Res. 1991, 9: 91-103. 10.1002/jor.1100090112.
Seroussi RE, Pope MH: The relationship between trunk muscle electromyography and lifting moments in the sagittal and frontal planes. J Biomech. 1987, 20: 135-146. 10.1016/0021-9290(87)90305-8.
Marras WS, Davis KG, Granata KP: Trunk muscle activities during asymmetric twisting motions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1998, 8: 247-256. 10.1016/S1050-6411(98)00011-X.
Buckley J, Kerwin D: The role of the biceps and triceps brachii during tennis serving. Ergonomics. 1988, 31: 1621-1629. 10.1080/00140138808966811.
Girard O, Micallef JP, Millet GP: Lower-limb activity during the power serve in tennis: effects of performance level. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005, 37: 1021-1029.
Kibler WB, Chandler TJ, Shapiro R, Conuel M: Muscle activation in coupled scapulohumeral motions in the high performance tennis serve. Br J Sports Med. 2007, 41: 745-749. 10.1136/bjsm.2007.037333.
Morris M, Healy B, Pink M, Perry J, Jobe F: Electromyographic analysis of elbow function in tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 1989, 17: 241-247. 10.1177/036354658901700215.
Ryu RK, McCormick J, Jobe FW, Moynes DR, Antonelli DJ: An electromyographic analysis of shoulder function in tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 1988, 16: 481-485. 10.1177/036354658801600509.
Seeley MK, Uhl TL, McCrory J, McGinn P, Kibler WB, Shapiro R: A comparison of muscle activations during traditional and abbreviated tennis serves. Sports Biomech. 2008, 7: 248-259. 10.1080/14763140701841746.
Van Gheluwe B, Hebbelinck M: Muscle actions and ground reaction forces in tennis. Int J Sport Biomech. 1986, 2: 88-99.
Anderson MB: Comparison of muscle patterning in the overarm throw and tennis serve. Res Q. 1979, 50: 541-553.
Chow JW, Shim JH, Lim YT: Lower trunk muscle activity during the tennis serve. J Sci Med Sport. 2003, 6: 512-518. 10.1016/S1440-2440(03)80276-1.
Tully EA, Stillman BC: Computer-aided video analysis of vertebrofemoral motion during toe touching in healthy subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997, 78: 759-766. 10.1016/S0003-9993(97)90086-1.
Schache AG, Blanch P, Rath D, Wrigley T, Bennell K: Differences between the sexes in the three-dimensional angular rotations of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during treadmill running. J Sports Sci. 2003, 21: 105-118. 10.1080/0264041031000070859.
Vaughan CL, Davis BL, O'Connor JC: Dynamics of Human Gait. 1999, Cape Town: Kiboho Publishers
Bahamonde RE: Changes in angular momentum during the tennis serve. J Sports Sci. 2000, 18: 579-592. 10.1080/02640410050082297.
Cholewicki J, VanVliet JJ: Relative contribution of trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine during isometric exertions. Clin Biomech. 2002, 17: 99-105. 10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00118-8.
Vezina MJ, Hubley-Kozey CL: Muscle activation in therapeutic exercises to improve trunk stability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000, 81: 1370-1379. 10.1053/apmr.2000.16349.
O'Sullivan P, Twomey L, Allison G, Sinclair J, Miller K: Altered patterns of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother. 1997, 43: 91-98.
Cholewicki J, Juluru K, McGill SM: Intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine. J Biomech. 1999, 32: 13-17. 10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00129-8.
Sarti MA, Monfort M, Fuster MA, Villaplana LA: Muscle activity in upper and lower rectus abdominus during abdominal exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996, 77: 1293-1297. 10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90195-1.
Pope MH, Andersson GB, Broman H, Svensson M, Zetterberg C: Electromyographic studies of the lumbar trunk musculature during the development of axial torques. J Orthop Res. 1986, 4: 288-297. 10.1002/jor.1100040305.
Callaghan JP, Gunning JL, McGill SM: The relationship between lumbar spine load and muscle activity during extensor exercises. Phys Ther. 1998, 78: 8-18.
Arokoski JP, Valta T, Kankaanpaa M, Airaksinen O: Activation of lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles during therapeutic exercises in chronic low back pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004, 85: 823-832. 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.06.013.
Schultz A, Haderspeck K, Warwick D, Portillo D: Use of lumbar trunk muscles in isometric performance of mechanically complex standing tasks. J Orthop Res. 1983, 1: 77-91. 10.1002/jor.1100010111.
Schultz A, Cromwell R, Warwick D, Andersson G: Lumbar trunk muscle use in standing isometric heavy exertions. J Orthop Res. 1987, 5: 320-329. 10.1002/jor.1100050303.
Ng JK, Parnianpour M, Richardson CA, Kippers V: Functional roles of abdominal and back muscles during isometric axial rotation of the trunk. J Orthop Res. 2001, 19: 463-471. 10.1016/S0736-0266(00)90027-5.
Granata KP, Orishimo KF: Response of trunk muscle coactivation to changes in spinal stability. J Biomech. 2001, 34: 1117-1123. 10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00081-1.
Janevic J, Ashton-Miller JA, Schultz AB: Large compressive preloads decrease lumbar motion segment flexibility. J Orthop Res. 1991, 9: 228-236. 10.1002/jor.1100090211.
Thelen DG, Schultz AB, Ashton-Miller JA: Co-contraction of lumbar muscles during the development of time-varying triaxial moments. J Orthop Res. 1995, 13: 390-398. 10.1002/jor.1100130313.
Marras WS, Granata KP: A biomechanical assessment and model of axial twisting in the thoracolumbar spine. Spine. 1995, 20: 1440-1451.
Macintosh JE, Bogduk N: The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae. Spine. 1987, 12: 658-668. 10.1097/00007632-198709000-00004.
McGill SM: The influence of lordosis on axial trunk torque and trunk muscle myoelectric activity. Spine. 1992, 17: 1187-1193. 10.1097/00007632-199210000-00010.
Marras WS, Davis KG, Kirking BC, Granata KP: Spine loading and trunk kinematics during team lifting. Ergonomics. 1999, 42: 1258-1273. 10.1080/001401399185919.
Van Herp G, Rowe P, Salter P, Paul JP: Three-dimensional lumbar spinal kinematics: a study of range of movement in 100 healthy subjects aged 20 to 60+ years. Rheumatology. 2000, 39: 1337-1340. 10.1093/rheumatology/39.12.1337.
Vogt L, Pfeifer K, Portscher AM, Banzer W: Influences of nonspecific low back pain on three-dimensional lumbar spine kinematics in locomotion. Spine. 2001, 26: 1910-1919. 10.1097/00007632-200109010-00019.
Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC: The lumbar spine in backward bending. Spine. 1988, 13: 1019-1026. 10.1097/00007632-198809000-00009.
el-Bohy AA, Yang KH, King AI: Experimental verification of facet load transmission by direct measurement of facet lamina contact pressure. J Biomech. 1989, 22: 931-941. 10.1016/0021-9290(89)90077-8.
Pearcy M, Portek I, Shepherd J: The effect of low-back pain on lumbar spinal movements measured by three-dimensional X-ray analysis. Spine. 1985, 10: 150-153. 10.1097/00007632-198503000-00007.
Pearcy MJ, Tibrewal SB: Axial rotation and lateral bending in the normal lumbar spine measured by three-dimensional radiography. Spine. 1984, 9: 582-587. 10.1097/00007632-198409000-00008.
Hickey DS, Hukins DW: Relation between the structure of the annulus fibrosus and the function and failure of the intervertebral disc. Spine. 1980, 5: 106-116. 10.1097/00007632-198003000-00004.
Adams MA, Hutton WC: The relevance of torsion to the mechanical derangement of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1981, 6: 241-248. 10.1097/00007632-198105000-00006.
Farfan HF, Cossette JW, Robertson GH, Wells RV, Kraus H: The effects of torsion on the lumbar intervertebral joints: the role of torsion in the production of disc degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1970, 52: 468-497.
Andersson GB: The epidemiology of spinal disorders. The Adult Spine. Edited by: Frymoyer JW. 1991, New York: Raven Press, 107-147.
Kumar S: The epidemiology and functional evaluation of low-back pain: a literature review. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil. 1994, 4: 15-27.
Dalen N, Olsson KE: Bone mineral content and physical activity. Acta Orthop Scand. 1974, 45: 170-174.
Nilsson BE, Westlin NE: Bone density in athletes. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1971, 77: 179-182.
Granhed H, Jonson R, Hansson T: The loads on the lumbar spine during extreme weight lifting. Spine. 1987, 12: 146-149. 10.1097/00007632-198703000-00010.
Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC: Diurnal variations in the stresses on the lumbar spine. Spine. 1987, 12: 130-137. 10.1097/00007632-198703000-00008.
Roy SH, De Luca CJ, Snyder-Mackler L, Emley MS, Crenshaw RL, Lyons JP: Fatigue, recovery, and low back pain in varsity rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990, 22: 463-469.