Arem H, Moore SC, Patel A, Hartge P, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Visvanathan K, et al. Leisure time physical activity and mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(6):959–67. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0533.
Wen CP, Wai JPM, Tsai MK, Chen CH. Minimal amount of exercise to prolong life: to walk, to run, or just mix it up? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(5):482–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.026.
Shiroma EJ, Lee I-M. Physical activity and cardiovascular health: lessons learned from epidemiological studies across age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Circulation. 2010;122(7):743–52. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.914721.
Crump C, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Sundquist K. Interactive effects of physical fitness and body mass index on the risk of hypertension. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(2):210–6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.7444.
Illiam W, Raus EK, Oseph J, et al. Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1483–92.
Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA et al. Exercise for depression ( Review ). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004366.
Goodwin RD. Association between physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. Prev Med (Baltim). 2003;36:698–703.
Zhu W, Wadley VG, Howard VJ, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and cognitive function in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(1):47–53. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001079.
Adamo M, Codella R, Casiraghi F, Ferrulli A, Macrì C, Bazzigaluppi E, et al. Active subjects with autoimmune type 1 diabetes have better metabolic profiles than sedentary controls. Cell Transplant. 2017 Jan 24;26(1):23–32. https://doi.org/10.3727/096368916X693022.
Codella R, Ialacqua M, Terruzzi I, Luzi L. May the force be with you: why resistance training is essential for subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications. Endocrine. 2018;62(1):14–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-018-1603-7.
Ladabaum U, Mannalithara A, Myer PA, Singh G. Obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults: 1988 to 2010. Am J Med. 2014;127(8):717–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.026.
Kaminsky LA, Arena R, Beckie TM, Brubaker PH, Church TS, Forman DE, et al. The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness in the United States: the need for a national registry: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127(5):652–62. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e31827ee100.
Kamiya K, Masuda T, Tanaka S, Hamazaki N, Matsue Y, Mezzani A, et al. Quadriceps strength as a predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease. Am J Med. 2015;128(11):1212–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.06.035.
Lavie CJ, Arena R, Swift DL, Johannsen NM, Sui X, Lee DC, et al. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes. Circ Res. 2015;117(2):207–19. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.305205.
Gupta S, Rohatgi A, Ayers CR, Willis BL, Haskell WL, Khera A, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and classification of risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. Circulation. 2011;123(13):1377–83. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.003236.
Ross R, Blair SN, Arena R, Church TS, et al. Importance of assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in clinical practice: a case for fitness as a clinical vital sign: a scientific statement from the american heart association. Circulation, 2016;134(24):e653–99.
Petrella RJ, Koval JJ, Cunningham DA, Paterson DH. A self-paced step test to predict aerobic fitness in older adults in the primary care clinic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(5):632–8. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49124.x.
Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, Morrow JR, Jackson AW, Sjostrom M, et al. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;337(jul01 2):a439. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a439.
Roberts CK, Lee MM, Katiraie M, et al. Strength fitness and body weight status on markers of cardiometabolic health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(6):1211–8. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000526.
Sénéchal M, McGavock JM, Church TS, et al. Cut points of muscle strength associated with metabolic syndrome in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(8):1475–81. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000266.
Harber MP, Konopka AR, Undem MK, Hinkley JM, Minchev K, Kaminsky LA, et al. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113(9):1495–504. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00786.2012.
Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Sen A, Gordon PM. Resistance exercise for muscular strength in older adults: a meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2010;9:226–37.
Ibrahim K, May C, Patel HP, Baxter M, Sayer AA, Roberts H. A feasibility study of implementing grip strength measurement into routine hospital practice (GRImP): study protocol. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2016;2(1):27. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-016-0067-x.
Lauretani F, Russo CR, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Cavazzini C, di Iorio A, et al. Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(5):1851–60. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00246.2003.
Leong DP, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Avezum A Jr, Orlandini A, et al. Prognostic value of grip strength: findings from the prospective urban rural epidemiology (PURE) study. Lancet. 2015;386(9990):266–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6.
Coleman KJ, Ngor E, Reynolds K, et al. Initial validation of an exercise “vital sign” in electronic medical records. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(11):2071–6. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182630ec1.
Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.
Mathiowetz V, Kashman N, Volland G, Weber K, Dowe M, Rogers S. Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985;66(2):69–74.
The Physical Fitness Specialist Certification Manual, The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas TX, revised 1997 printed in Advance Fitness Assessment & Exercise Prescription, 3rd Edition, Vivian H. Heyward, 1998.p48.
Office of the Surgeon General (US). Step It Up!: The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2015.
Foster C, Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, Kaur A. Interventions for promoting physical activity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:1–90.
National Physical Activity Plan Alliance (2016). U.S. National Physical Activity Plan. Available at: http://physicalactivityplan.org/docs/2016NPAP_Finalforwebsite.pdf
Joseph RP, Keller C, Adams MA, Ainsworth BE. Validity of two brief physical activity questionnaires with accelerometers among African-American women. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2016;17(3):265–76. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1463423615000390.
Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Schoenborn CA, Loustalot F. Trend and prevalence estimates based on the 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39:305–13.
Sallis R, Young DR, Tartof SY, et al. Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48,440 adult patients. Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 13 April 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080
Nes BM, Janszky I, Vatten LJ, Nilsen TIL, Aspenes ST, WislØff U. Estimating V̇O2peak from a nonexercise prediction model: the HUNT study, Norway. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(11):2024–30. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821d3f6f.
O’Donovan G, Bakrania K, Ghouri N, et al. Nonexercise equations to estimate fitness in White European and south Asian men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(5):854–9. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000836.
Nauman J, Nes BM, Lavie CJ, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular mortality by estimated cardiorespiratory fitness independent of traditional risk factors: the HUNT study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;92:1–10.
Vidoni ED, Mattlage A, Mahnken J, Burns JM, McDonough J, Billinger SA. Validity of the step test for exercise prescription: no extension to a larger age range. J Aging Phys Act. 2013;21(4):444–54. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.21.4.444.
Petrella RJ, Lattanzio CN, Shapiro S, Overend T. Improving aerobic fitness in older adults: effects of a physician-based exercise counseling and prescription program. Can Fam Physician. 2010;56(5):e191–200.
Ortega FB, Silventoinen K, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F. Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. BMJ. 2012;345(nov20 3):e7279. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e7279.
Rantanen T, Masaki K, He Q, Ross GW, Willcox BJ, White L. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort. Age (Omaha). 2012;34(3):563–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9256-y.
Giampaoli S, Ferrucci L, Cecchi F, Lo Noce C, Poce A, Dima F, et al. Hand-grip strength predicts incident disability in non-disabled older men. Age Ageing. 1999;28(3):283–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/28.3.283.
Cawthon PM, Fox KM, Gandra SR, Delmonico MJ, Chiou CF, Anthony MS, et al. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength, and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(8):1411–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02366.x.
Auyeung TW, Lee JSW, Kwok T, Woo J. Physical frailty predicts future cognitive decline - a four-year prospective study in 2737 cognitively normal older adults. J Nutr Heal Aging. 2011;15(8):690–4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-011-0110-9.
Norman K, Stobäus N, Gonzalez MC, Schulzke JD, Pirlich M. Hand grip strength: outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(2):135–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2010.09.010.