Meckel Y, Eliakim A, Seraev M, Zaldivar F, Cooper DM, Sagiv M, et al. The effect of a brief sprint interval exercise on growth factors and inflammatory mediators. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:225–30.
Meckel Y, Nemet D, Bar-Sela S, Radom-Aizik S, Cooper DM, Sagiv M, et al. Hormonal and inflammatory responses to different types of sprint interval training. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2161–9.
Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop NC, et al. Position statement. Part one: immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2011;17:6–63.
Denadai BS, Ortiz MJ, Greco CC, de Mello MT. Interval training at 95% and 100% of the velocity at VO2 max: effects on aerobic physiological indexes and running performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31:737–43.
Rhibi F, Zouhal H, Lira FS, Ouerghi N, Prioux J, Besbes S, et al. Inflammatory cytokines and metabolic responses to high-intensity intermittent training: effect of the exercise intensity. Biol Sport. 2021;39:263–72.
Morgado JP, Monteiro CP, Teles J, Reis JF, Matias C, Seixas MT, et al. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0488.
Morgado JP, Monteiro CP, Matias CN, Reis JF, Teles J, Laires MJ, et al. Long-term swimming training modifies acute immune cell response to a high-intensity session. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018;118:573–83.
Yamada K, Nakata M, Horimoto N, Saito M, Matsuoka H, Inagaki N. Measurement of glucose uptake and intracellular calcium concentration in single, living pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22278–83.
Brancaccio P, Lippi G, Maffulli N. Biochemical markers of muscular damage. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:757–67.
Joubert LM, Manore MM. Exercise, nutrition, and homocysteine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:341–61.
Nieman DC. Immune response to heavy exertion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;82(5):1385–94. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1245.
Hack V, Strobel G, Weiss M, Weicker H. PMN cell counts and phagocytic activity of highly trained athletes depend on training period. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994;77(4):1731–5. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1991.
Gleeson M, McDonald WA, Pyne DB, Cripps AW, Francis JL, Fricker PA, Clancy RL. Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(1):67–73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012.
Pyne DB. Exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation: a review. Aust J Sci Med Sport. 1994;26:49–58.
Anđelković M, Baralić I, Đorđević B, Stevuljević JK, Radivojević N, Dikić N, et al. Hematological and biochemical parameters in elite soccer players during a competitive half season. J Med Biochem. 2015;34:460–6.
Silva JR, Rebelo A, Marques F, Pereira L, Seabra A, Ascensão A, et al. Biochemical impact of soccer: an analysis of hormonal, muscle damage, and redox markers during the season. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39:432–8.
Pimenta E, Coelho D, Capettini LS, Gomes T, Pussieldi G, Ribeiro J, et al. Analysis of creatine kinase and alpha-actin concentrations in soccer pre-season. Rev Brasil de Ciên. 2015. https://doi.org/10.18511/0103-1716/rbcm.v23n4p5-14.
Coppalle S, Rave G, Ben Abderrahman A, Ali A, Salhi I, Zouita S, et al. Relationship of pre-season training load with in-season biochemical markers, injuries and performance in professional soccer players. Front Physiol. 2019;10:409.
Requena B, García I, Suárez-Arrones L, Sáez de Villarreal E, Naranjo Orellana J, Santalla A. Off-season effects on functional performance, body composition, and blood parameters in top-level professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31:939–46.
Gharahdaghi N, Kordi MR, Shabkhiz F. Acute exercise-induced muscular damage after one month training in soccer players. Ovidius Univ Ann Ser Phys Educ Sport Sci Movement Health. 2013;13:S269–S269.
Saidi K, Abderrahman AB, Hackney AC, Bideau B, Zouita S, Granacher U, et al. Hematology, hormones, inflammation, and muscle damage in elite and professional soccer players: a systematic review with implications for exercise. Sports Med. 2021;51:2607–27.
Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol. 2001;537(Pt 2):333–45.
Brancaccio P, Maffulli N, Limongelli FM. Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. Br Med Bull. 2007;81–82:209–30.
Del Giacco SR, Scorcu M, Argiolas F, Firinu D, Del Giacco GS. Exercise training, lymphocyte subsets and their cytokines production: experience of an italian professional football team and their impact on allergy. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014.
Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L. Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation. Physiol Rev. 2000;80:1055–81.
Gleeson M. Immune function in sport and exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2007(103):693–9.
Rama L, Teixeira AM, Matos A, Borges G, Henriques A, Gleeson M, et al. Changes in natural killer cell subpopulations over a winter training season in elite swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:859–68.
Nosaka K, Clarkson PM. Muscle damage following repeated bouts of high force eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:1263–9.
Millet GP, Libicz S, Borrani F, Fattori P, Bignet F, Candau R. Effects of increased intensity of intermittent training in runners with differing VO2 kinetics. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90:50–7.
Ballor DL, Volovsek AJ. Effect of exercise to rest ratio on plasma lactate concentration at work rates above and below maximum oxygen uptake. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1992;65:365–9.
Thevenet D, Leclair E, Tardieu-Berger M, Berthoin S, Regueme S, Prioux J. Influence of recovery intensity on time spent at maximal oxygen uptake during an intermittent session in young, endurance-trained athletes. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:1313–21.
Buchheit M, Laursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle: part I: cardiopulmonary emphasis. Sports Med. 2013;43:313–38.
Musa DI, Adeniran SA, Dikko AU, Sayers SP. The effect of a high-intensity interval training program on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in young men. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:587–92.
Swift DL, Johannsen NM, Earnest CP, Blair SN, Church TS. Effect of exercise training modality on C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1028–34.
Weiner JS, Lourie JA. Human biology: a guide to field methods. Oxford: Published for the International Biological Programme by Blackwell Scientific; 1969.
CAZORLA Georges, Luc Leger. Comment évaluer et développer vos capacités aérobies : épreuve progressive de course navette, épreuve progressive de course sur piste VAMEVAL. 1993.
Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974;32:77–97.
Kuipers H, Verstappen FT, Keizer HA, Geurten P, van Kranenburg G. Variability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiologic correlates. Int J Sports Med. 1985;6:197–201.
Rhibi F, Prioux J, Attia MB, Hackney AC, Zouhal H, Abderrahman AB. Increase interval training intensity improves plasma volume variations and aerobic performances in response to intermittent exercise. Physiol Behav. 2019;199:137–45.
Vincent WJ, Weir JP. Statistics in Kinesiology. 4th ed. Human Kinetics Inc.; 2011.
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 1988.
Abdi H, Williams LJ. Overview principal component analysis.
Rosnow RL, Rosenthal R. “Some things you learn aren’t so”: cohen’s paradox, asch’s paradigm, and the interpretation of interaction. Psychol Sci. 1995;6:3–9.
Rosnow RL, Rosenthal R. Computing contrasts, effect sizes, and counternulls on other people’s published data: general procedures for research consumers. Psychol Methods. 1996;1:331–40.
Fox J, Weisberg S. Visualizing fit and lack of fit in complex regression models with predictor effect plots and partial residuals. J Stat Softw. 2018;87:1–27.
Ben Abderrahman A, Zouhal H, Chamari K, Thevenet D, de Mullenheim P-Y, Gastinger S, et al. Effects of recovery mode (active vs. passive) on performance during a short high-intensity interval training program: a longitudinal study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:1373–83.
Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, Rakobowchuk M, MacDonald MJ, McGee SL, et al. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol. 2008;586(Pt 1):151–60.
Dongway AC, Faggad AS, Zaki HY, Abdalla BE. C-reactive protein is associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and obesity in type 2 diabetic sudanese. Diabetes Metab Syndrome Obesity Targets Ther. 2015;8:427–35. https://www.dovepress.com/c-reactive-protein-is-associated-with-low-density-lipoprotein-choleste-peer-reviewed-article-DMSO. Accessed 14 Jan 2021.
Kessler HS, Sisson SB, Short KR. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med. 2012;42:489–509.
Kasapis C, Thompson PD. The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1563–9.
Mauger J-F, Lévesque J, Paradis M-E, Bergeron N, Tchernof A, Couture P, et al. Intravascular kinetics of C-reactive protein and their relationships with features of the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3158–64.
Reinehr T, Stoffel-Wagner B, Roth CL, Andler W. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cardiovascular risk factors before and after weight loss in obese children. Metabolism. 2005;54:1155–61.
Baird MF, Graham SM, Baker JS, Bickerstaff GF. Creatine-kinase- and exercise-related muscle damage implications for muscle performance and recovery. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012: 960363.
Brewster LM, Mairuhu G, Bindraban NR, Koopmans RP, Clark JF, van Montfrans GA. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure. Circulation. 2006;114:2034–9.
Main LC, Dawson B, Heel K, Grove JR, Landers GJ, Goodman C. Relationship between inflammatory cytokines and self-report measures of training overload. Res Sports Med. 2010;18:127–39.
Morgan DL. New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening. Biophys J. 1990;57:209–21.
Baker JS, McCormick MC, Robergs RA. Interaction among skeletal muscle metabolic energy systems during intense exercise. J Nutr Metab. 2010;2010.
Farhana A, Lappin SL. Biochemistry, lactate dehydrogenase. StatPearls: StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Dubouchaud H, Butterfield GE, Wolfel EE, Bergman BC, Brooks GA. Endurance training, expression, and physiology of LDH, MCT1, and MCT4 in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;278:E571–9.
Ammar A, Chtourou H, Hammouda O, Trabelsi K, Chiboub J, Turki M, et al. Acute and delayed responses of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde and antioxidant markers after resistance training session in elite weightlifters: effect of time of day. Chronobiol Int. 2015;32:1211–22.
Ceci R, Beltran Valls MR, Duranti G, Dimauro I, Quaranta F, Pittaluga M, et al. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training. Redox Biol. 2013;2:65–72.
Hammouda O, Chahed H, Chtourou H, Ferchichi S, Miled A, Souissi N. Morning-to-evening difference of biomarkers of muscle injury and antioxidant status in young trained soccer players. Biol Rhythm Res. 2012;43:431–8.
Gomez-Merino D, Drogou C, Chennaoui M, Tiollier E, Mathieu J, Guezennec CY. Effects of combined stress during intense training on cellular immunity, hormones and respiratory infections. NeuroImmunoModulation. 2005;12:164–72.
Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H. How physical exercise influences the establishment of infections. Sports Med. 1995;19:393–400.
Kakanis MW, Peake J, Brenu EW, Simmonds M, Gray B, Hooper SL, et al. The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2010;16:119–37.
Nieman DC. Immunonutrition support for athletes. Nutr Rev. 2008;66:310–20.