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  1. Symmetry is a sign of physiological and healthy movements, as pathologies are often described by increased asymmetries. Nevertheless, based on precisely measured data, even healthy individuals will show small ...

    Authors: Hannah Lena Siebers, Waleed Alrawashdeh, Marcel Betsch, Filippo Migliorini, Frank Hildebrand and Jörg Eschweiler

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:130

    Content type: Research

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  2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of bradycardia induced by pre-exercise acupuncture on heart rate responses during short-duration exercise.

    Authors: Hidehiro Nakahara, Shin-ya Ueda, Eriko Kawai, Rui Higashiura and Tadayoshi Miyamoto

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:129

    Content type: Research

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  3. Peer-based exercise interventions that cultivate new opportunities for support with a fellow cancer survivor may result in increased exercise volume. It is not clear whether adding qualified exercise professio...

    Authors: Jenna Smith-Turchyn, Michelle E. McCowan, Erin O’Loughlin, Angela J. Fong, Meghan H. McDonough, Daniel Santa Mina, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Linda Trinh, Jennifer M. Jones, Jackie L. Bender, S. Nicole Culos-Reed, Jennifer R. Tomasone, Madison F. Vani and Catherine M. Sabiston

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:128

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Superior shoulder motion with rotator cuff activation are essential for the performance of the throwing athletes. The present study compared the novel beginning movement load training (BMLT) and popular throwe...

    Authors: Wen-Yi Chou, Jih-Yang Ko, Shu-Fang Chen, Chia-Feng Wu, Kuan-Ting Wu and Shun-Wun Jhan

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:127

    Content type: Research

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  5. The interpretation of the load variations across a period seems important to control the weekly progression or variation of the load, or to identify within- micro and mesocycle variations. Thus, the aim of thi...

    Authors: Rafael Oliveira, Alexandre Martins, Hadi Nobari, Matilde Nalha, Bruno Mendes, Filipe Manuel Clemente and João Paulo Brito

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:126

    Content type: Research

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  6. Digit ratio (2D:4D) characterized by the length of the second digit (2D) divided by the length of the fourth digit (4D), is a powerful marker of athletic performance. Some studies showed a negative correlation...

    Authors: Hadi Nobari, Ana Ruivo Alves, Filipe Manuel Clemente and Jorge Pérez-Gómez

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:125

    Content type: Research

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  7. Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a single physical activity metric based upon heart rate responses to physical activity. Maintaining 100 PAI/week is associated with a 25% risk reduction in cardiovascula...

    Authors: Amanda L. Hannan, Wayne Hing, Jeff S. Coombes, Suzanne Gough, Mike Climstein, Geoff Adsett, Rohan Jayasinghe and James Furness

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:124

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The “parkrun: running or volunteering for everyone” (PROVE) project was an example of a community-based physical activity and volunteering initiative for people living with long-term health conditions in England....

    Authors: Helen Quirk and Steve Haake

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:123

    Content type: Research

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  9. The therapeutic alliance (TA) is the bond between a patient and a physiotherapist during collaboration on recovery or training. Previous studies focused on the TA between physiotherapists and patients of the g...

    Authors: W. M. Charmant, P. J. van der Wees, J. B. Staal, R. van Cingel, J. M. Sieben and R. A. de Bie

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:122

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Injury-related fear contributed to disability in chronic ankle instability (CAI), while there still lacked exploration on the appraisal processes of the injury-related stimuli. This study aimed to compare the ...

    Authors: Xiao’ao Xue, Shengkun Li, Hongyun Li, Qianru Li and Yinghui Hua

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:121

    Content type: Research

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  11. To improve propulsion during running, athletes often wear spike shoes designed for training and/or competition. Running with spike shoes may cause pain and/or injuries. To address this problem, a modified spik...

    Authors: Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Ehsan Fakhri and Urs Granacher

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:120

    Content type: Research

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  12. Respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers. However, among these and in swimmers at other activity levels the swimming distance, the total spent time in swimming halls and their medical background...

    Authors: Marja Päivinen, Kari Keskinen, Tuula Putus, Urho M. Kujala, Pentti Kalliokoski and Heikki O. Tikkanen

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:119

    Content type: Research

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  13. Hydrofoil technology has changed sailing, significantly increasing its speed and resulting in spectacularity and mass media interest. Although high speed can expose participants to a risk of high-energy trauma...

    Authors: Francesco Feletti, Eric Brymer, Matteo Bonato and Andrea Aliverti

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:118

    Content type: Research

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  14. Anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) contain testosterone-like androgens and are used as supplements to improve performance, therapeutic measures, appearance, and muscular development.

    Authors: Ameen Mosleh Almohammadi, Anas Mohammed Edriss and Turki Talal Enani

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:117

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Monitoring technology is increasingly accessible to recreational runners. Our aim was to examine patterns of technology use in recreational runners, and its potential association with injury.

    Authors: Richard S. Mayne, Chris M. Bleakley and Mark Matthews

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:116

    Content type: Research

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  16. Lightweight rowers commonly utilize weight loss techniques over 24-h before competition to achieve the qualifying weight for racing. The objective was to investigate, using a quasi-experimental design, whether...

    Authors: Dayton J. Kelly, Sarah L. West, Nathan O’Keeffe and Liana E. Brown

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:115

    Content type: Research

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  17. Physical inactivity is one of the primary factors that leads to obesity and overweight. What is more, it is becoming an increasingly common problem among the population of those who work. The causes of obesity...

    Authors: Katarzyna Kwiecień-Jaguś, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Monika Kopeć, Renata Piotrkowska, Katarzyna Czyż-Szypenbejl, Rita Hansdorfer-Korzon, Magdalena Lemska and Piotr Jarzynkowski

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:114

    Content type: Research

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  18. Ankle sprains are the most commonly reported injury in netball. Approximately four in five netball athletes will sustain an ankle sprain, up to half will go on to sustain recurrent ankle sprains, and nine in t...

    Authors: Patrick L. Rowe, Adam L. Bryant and Kade L. Paterson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:113

    Content type: Research

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  19. Obesity is considered an epidemic problem with an increasing number of individuals affected. The physical and psychological complaints associated with obesity point to the importance of implementing effective ...

    Authors: Julian Fritsch, Katharina Feil, Susanne Weyland, Detlef Schmidt and Darko Jekauc

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:112

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. In Taekwondo competitions, the rule is that points are scored when the impact of the kick reaches a predetermined threshold of strength. This study aimed to explore the adequacy of the protector and scoring sy...

    Authors: Chang-Hwan Choi, Hyeri Oh and Minsoo Jeon

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:110

    Content type: Research

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  21. Bowling in cricket is a complex sporting movement which, despite being well characterised, still produces a significant number of injuries each year. Fast bowlers are more likely to be injured than any other p...

    Authors: Matthew Constable, Daniel Wundersitz, Rodrigo Bini and Michael Kingsley

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:109

    Content type: Research

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  22. A specific walking speed minimizing the U-shaped relationship between energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) and speed is called economical speed (ES). To investigate the effects of reduced body weig...

    Authors: Daijiro Abe, Shunsuke Sakata, Kiyotaka Motoyama, Naoki Toyota, Hidetsugu Nishizono and Masahiro Horiuchi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:107

    Content type: Research

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  23. Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to inc...

    Authors: Athalie Redwood-Brown, Grant William Ralston and Jennifer Wilson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:106

    Content type: Research

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  24. Unilateral resistance training increases the strength of the contralateral non-trained homologous muscles known as the cross-education effect. We tested the hypothesis that unilateral eccentric resistance trai...

    Authors: Shigeru Sato, Riku Yoshida, Ryosuke Kiyono, Kaoru Yahata, Koki Yasaka, Kazunori Nosaka and Masatoshi Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:105

    Content type: Research article

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  25. People worldwide have a high intake of caffeine. Active adults are among the group of people who have always been interested in caffeine as an ergogenic aid. This study aims at examining the association betwee...

    Authors: Zeina Tayba, Yonna Sacre, Randa Attieh and Haider Mannan

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:104

    Content type: Research

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  26. Previous studies have typically measured velocity and power parameters during the push-up, either using one or two force platforms. The purpose of the study was to compare the force, velocity, and power parame...

    Authors: Zhanxin Sha and Boyi Dai

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:103

    Content type: Technical advance

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  27. This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CC16, SP-D, and CC16/SP-D ratio) and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC r...

    Authors: Leila Nikniaz, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Hooman Nateghian, Zeinab Nikniaz, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Hadi Pourmanaf

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:102

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Lumbopelvic control (LPC) has recently been associated with function, kinesiology, and load distribution on the limb. However, poor LPC has not been studied as a risk factor for lower limb injury in sports req...

    Authors: Paria Fadaei Dehcheshmeh, Farzaneh Gandomi and Nicola Maffulli

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:101

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:108

  29. People with physical disabilities (PWPD) have limited opportunities to participate in sport activities. Sitting light volleyball (SLVB) is an adapted sport that combines light volleyball and paralympic sitting...

    Authors: Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, William Chu and Kwok Ng

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:100

    Content type: Research

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  30. Interoception refers to the body’s physiological responses that occur in response to emotions. This phenomenon influences decision-making, an important cognitive ability that affects the maintenance of an exer...

    Authors: Yusaku Amaya, Tetsuya Abe, Kenji Kanbara, Hisaharu Shizuma, Yasushi Akiyama and Mikihiko Fukunaga

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:99

    Content type: Research

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  31. The role of sports pharmacists is being emphasized in international athletic events. This study aimed to describe the pharmacy services for the 2019 Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters C...

    Authors: In Kyu Yang, Eun Ok Shin, Dong Gyun Kim, Hyun Cheol Jung, Kwang Joon Kim and Sung Hwan Ki

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:98

    Content type: Research

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  32. Several studies have observed the contribution of chronological age, biological maturation, and anthropometric characteristics to sprinting performance in young soccer players. Nevertheless, there are no studi...

    Authors: Elena Mainer-Pardos, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Hadi Nobari, Demetrio Lozano and Jorge Pérez-Gómez

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:97

    Content type: Research

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  33. Severe rapid weight loss (RWL) induces a decrease in muscle glycogen (mGly). Nevertheless, adequate carbohydrate intake after RWL has not been reported to optimize muscle glycogen following a weigh-in the even...

    Authors: Emi Kondo, Keisuke Shiose, Takuya Osawa, Keiko Motonaga, Akiko Kamei, Kohei Nakajima, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Takahiro Wada, Shigeki Nishiguchi and Hideyuki Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:96

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Regular participation in exercise is important for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore, we implemented a personalized, web-based exercise intervention over the course of one year for people with CF. Th...

    Authors: Barlo Hillen, Perikles Simon, Sebastian Schlotter, Oliver Nitsche, Viola Bähner, Krystyna Poplawska and Daniel Pfirrmann

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:95

    Content type: Research

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  35. This study aimed to compare the match running performance between bottom- and top-ranked teams in professional soccer players over the 2020 season of the Brazilian National 2nd Division League. In addition, th...

    Authors: Rodrigo Aquino, Luiz Guilherme Gonçalves, Marcos Galgaro, Thiago Santi Maria, Eduardo Rostaiser, Alejandro Pastor, Hadi Nobari, Gabriel Rodrigues Garcia, Maxwell Viana Moraes-Neto and Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:93

    Content type: Research

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  36. This study sought to determine the effects of a 6-week neuromuscular training (NMT) and NMT plus external focus (NMT plus EF) programs on trunk and lower extremity inter-segmental movement coordination in acti...

    Authors: Bahram Sheikhi, Amir Letafatkar, Abbey C. Thomas and Kevin R. Ford

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:92

    Content type: Research

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  37. Tendinopathy is a common clinical condition that can significantly affect a person’s physical function and quality of life. Despite exercise therapy being the mainstay of tendinopathy management, there are man...

    Authors: Nicholas Tripodi, Jack Feehan, Maja Husaric, Fotios Sidiroglou and Vasso Apostolopoulos

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:91

    Content type: Research

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  38. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, muscle soreness, and reductions in muscle function. Cocoa flavanols (CF) are (poly)phenols with antioxidant and anti-...

    Authors: Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper and Robert J. Naughton

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:90

    Content type: Review

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  39. The bilateral limb deficit (BLD) phenomenon suggests that lower forces are produced with bilateral limb contractions compared to the summed force produced when the same muscles are contracted unilaterally. Whi...

    Authors: Emily Whitcomb, Oscar Ortiz, Jacqueline Toner and Usha Kuruganti

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:89

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Handball referees play an important role during a handball match. Surprisingly, not much is known about their sports-related injuries and resulting pain, therefore the purpose of our study was to focus on inju...

    Authors: Jens Heyn and Johannes Fleckenstein

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:88

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Chronic low back pain (CLBP), which has a close relationship with lumbar muscle degeneration, can be effectively treated by exercise therapy, and yoga has been widely accepted by clinicians and patients with C...

    Authors: Wenfen Liu, Jiachun Li, Xiang Zhou, Ningning Chen, Hui Ouyang, Zuofeng Xu and Yongsheng Zhu

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:87

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in everyday and sports activities. Approximately 20–40 % of patients with LAS develop a chronic ankle instability (CAI). The underlying mechani...

    Authors: Christian Raeder, Janina Tennler, Arthur Praetorius, Tobias Ohmann and Christian Schoepp

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:86

    Content type: Research

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  43. Assessing lactate (LT) or anaerobic thresholds (AT) in athletes is an important tool to control training intensities and to estimate individual performance levels. Previously we demonstrated that ECG-based ass...

    Authors: Dominik Schüttler, Simone Krammer, Lukas von Stülpnagel, Lauren Sams, Axel Bauer, Wolfgang Hamm and Stefan Brunner

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:85

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Little is known about the musculoskeletal (MSK) exam providers use during the Preparticipation Physical Examination (PPE). The primary aims of this study were to determine current practice with regards to the ...

    Authors: Connor Corrente, Matthew Silvis, Joseph Murphy, Robert Gallo and Cayce Onks

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:84

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Balance disorders are common in patients with neurological or vestibular diseases. Telerehabilitation program is a treatment to be as safe as conventional treatment. One of the most used methods to perform tel...

    Authors: Marcos Maldonado-Díaz, Patricia Vargas, Ricardo Vasquez, Felipe Gonzalez-Seguel, Betel Rivero, Viviane Hidalgo-Cabalín and Tania Gutierrez-Panchana

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:83

    Content type: Research

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  46. The Square Stepping Exercise (SSE) is an exercise training program incorporating cognitive and physical exercise components, which was originally developed for older adults to reduce falling risks. SSE’s poten...

    Authors: Masato Kawabata, Su Ren Gan, Gint Goh, Siti Aisha Binte Omar, Ivan T. F. Oh, Wan Qi Wee and Tomohiro Okura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:82

    Content type: Research

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  47. Representation of people with disabilities in fitness centres is lacking, despite initiatives to promote inclusion mainly in the UK and USA. Success creating these inclusive spaces is mixed and few were crafte...

    Authors: Helene Nikolajsen, Emma Victoria Richardson, Louise Fleng Sandal, Birgit Juul-Kristensen and Jens Troelsen

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:81

    Content type: Research article

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