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  1. Ankle sprains are the most commonly reported injury in netball. Approximately four in five netball athletes will sustain an ankle sprain, up to half will go on to sustain recurrent ankle sprains, and nine in t...

    Authors: Patrick L. Rowe, Adam L. Bryant and Kade L. Paterson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:113

    Content type: Research

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  2. Obesity is considered an epidemic problem with an increasing number of individuals affected. The physical and psychological complaints associated with obesity point to the importance of implementing effective ...

    Authors: Julian Fritsch, Katharina Feil, Susanne Weyland, Detlef Schmidt and Darko Jekauc

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:112

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. In Taekwondo competitions, the rule is that points are scored when the impact of the kick reaches a predetermined threshold of strength. This study aimed to explore the adequacy of the protector and scoring sy...

    Authors: Chang-Hwan Choi, Hyeri Oh and Minsoo Jeon

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:110

    Content type: Research

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  4. Bowling in cricket is a complex sporting movement which, despite being well characterised, still produces a significant number of injuries each year. Fast bowlers are more likely to be injured than any other p...

    Authors: Matthew Constable, Daniel Wundersitz, Rodrigo Bini and Michael Kingsley

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:109

    Content type: Research

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  5. A specific walking speed minimizing the U-shaped relationship between energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) and speed is called economical speed (ES). To investigate the effects of reduced body weig...

    Authors: Daijiro Abe, Shunsuke Sakata, Kiyotaka Motoyama, Naoki Toyota, Hidetsugu Nishizono and Masahiro Horiuchi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:107

    Content type: Research

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  6. Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to inc...

    Authors: Athalie Redwood-Brown, Grant William Ralston and Jennifer Wilson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:106

    Content type: Research

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  7. Unilateral resistance training increases the strength of the contralateral non-trained homologous muscles known as the cross-education effect. We tested the hypothesis that unilateral eccentric resistance trai...

    Authors: Shigeru Sato, Riku Yoshida, Ryosuke Kiyono, Kaoru Yahata, Koki Yasaka, Kazunori Nosaka and Masatoshi Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:105

    Content type: Research article

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  8. People worldwide have a high intake of caffeine. Active adults are among the group of people who have always been interested in caffeine as an ergogenic aid. This study aims at examining the association betwee...

    Authors: Zeina Tayba, Yonna Sacre, Randa Attieh and Haider Mannan

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:104

    Content type: Research

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  9. Previous studies have typically measured velocity and power parameters during the push-up, either using one or two force platforms. The purpose of the study was to compare the force, velocity, and power parame...

    Authors: Zhanxin Sha and Boyi Dai

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:103

    Content type: Technical advance

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  10. This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CC16, SP-D, and CC16/SP-D ratio) and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC r...

    Authors: Leila Nikniaz, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Hooman Nateghian, Zeinab Nikniaz, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Hadi Pourmanaf

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:102

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Lumbopelvic control (LPC) has recently been associated with function, kinesiology, and load distribution on the limb. However, poor LPC has not been studied as a risk factor for lower limb injury in sports req...

    Authors: Paria Fadaei Dehcheshmeh, Farzaneh Gandomi and Nicola Maffulli

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:101

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:108

  12. People with physical disabilities (PWPD) have limited opportunities to participate in sport activities. Sitting light volleyball (SLVB) is an adapted sport that combines light volleyball and paralympic sitting...

    Authors: Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, William Chu and Kwok Ng

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:100

    Content type: Research

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  13. Interoception refers to the body’s physiological responses that occur in response to emotions. This phenomenon influences decision-making, an important cognitive ability that affects the maintenance of an exer...

    Authors: Yusaku Amaya, Tetsuya Abe, Kenji Kanbara, Hisaharu Shizuma, Yasushi Akiyama and Mikihiko Fukunaga

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:99

    Content type: Research

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  14. The role of sports pharmacists is being emphasized in international athletic events. This study aimed to describe the pharmacy services for the 2019 Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters C...

    Authors: In Kyu Yang, Eun Ok Shin, Dong Gyun Kim, Hyun Cheol Jung, Kwang Joon Kim and Sung Hwan Ki

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:98

    Content type: Research

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  15. Several studies have observed the contribution of chronological age, biological maturation, and anthropometric characteristics to sprinting performance in young soccer players. Nevertheless, there are no studi...

    Authors: Elena Mainer-Pardos, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Hadi Nobari, Demetrio Lozano and Jorge Pérez-Gómez

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:97

    Content type: Research

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  16. Severe rapid weight loss (RWL) induces a decrease in muscle glycogen (mGly). Nevertheless, adequate carbohydrate intake after RWL has not been reported to optimize muscle glycogen following a weigh-in the even...

    Authors: Emi Kondo, Keisuke Shiose, Takuya Osawa, Keiko Motonaga, Akiko Kamei, Kohei Nakajima, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Takahiro Wada, Shigeki Nishiguchi and Hideyuki Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:96

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Regular participation in exercise is important for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore, we implemented a personalized, web-based exercise intervention over the course of one year for people with CF. Th...

    Authors: Barlo Hillen, Perikles Simon, Sebastian Schlotter, Oliver Nitsche, Viola Bähner, Krystyna Poplawska and Daniel Pfirrmann

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:95

    Content type: Research

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  18. This study aimed to compare the match running performance between bottom- and top-ranked teams in professional soccer players over the 2020 season of the Brazilian National 2nd Division League. In addition, th...

    Authors: Rodrigo Aquino, Luiz Guilherme Gonçalves, Marcos Galgaro, Thiago Santi Maria, Eduardo Rostaiser, Alejandro Pastor, Hadi Nobari, Gabriel Rodrigues Garcia, Maxwell Viana Moraes-Neto and Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:93

    Content type: Research

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  19. This study sought to determine the effects of a 6-week neuromuscular training (NMT) and NMT plus external focus (NMT plus EF) programs on trunk and lower extremity inter-segmental movement coordination in acti...

    Authors: Bahram Sheikhi, Amir Letafatkar, Abbey C. Thomas and Kevin R. Ford

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:92

    Content type: Research

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  20. Tendinopathy is a common clinical condition that can significantly affect a person’s physical function and quality of life. Despite exercise therapy being the mainstay of tendinopathy management, there are man...

    Authors: Nicholas Tripodi, Jack Feehan, Maja Husaric, Fotios Sidiroglou and Vasso Apostolopoulos

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:91

    Content type: Research

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  21. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, muscle soreness, and reductions in muscle function. Cocoa flavanols (CF) are (poly)phenols with antioxidant and anti-...

    Authors: Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper and Robert J. Naughton

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:90

    Content type: Review

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  22. The bilateral limb deficit (BLD) phenomenon suggests that lower forces are produced with bilateral limb contractions compared to the summed force produced when the same muscles are contracted unilaterally. Whi...

    Authors: Emily Whitcomb, Oscar Ortiz, Jacqueline Toner and Usha Kuruganti

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:89

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Handball referees play an important role during a handball match. Surprisingly, not much is known about their sports-related injuries and resulting pain, therefore the purpose of our study was to focus on inju...

    Authors: Jens Heyn and Johannes Fleckenstein

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:88

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Chronic low back pain (CLBP), which has a close relationship with lumbar muscle degeneration, can be effectively treated by exercise therapy, and yoga has been widely accepted by clinicians and patients with C...

    Authors: Wenfen Liu, Jiachun Li, Xiang Zhou, Ningning Chen, Hui Ouyang, Zuofeng Xu and Yongsheng Zhu

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:87

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in everyday and sports activities. Approximately 20–40 % of patients with LAS develop a chronic ankle instability (CAI). The underlying mechani...

    Authors: Christian Raeder, Janina Tennler, Arthur Praetorius, Tobias Ohmann and Christian Schoepp

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:86

    Content type: Research

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  26. Assessing lactate (LT) or anaerobic thresholds (AT) in athletes is an important tool to control training intensities and to estimate individual performance levels. Previously we demonstrated that ECG-based ass...

    Authors: Dominik Schüttler, Simone Krammer, Lukas von Stülpnagel, Lauren Sams, Axel Bauer, Wolfgang Hamm and Stefan Brunner

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:85

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Little is known about the musculoskeletal (MSK) exam providers use during the Preparticipation Physical Examination (PPE). The primary aims of this study were to determine current practice with regards to the ...

    Authors: Connor Corrente, Matthew Silvis, Joseph Murphy, Robert Gallo and Cayce Onks

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:84

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Balance disorders are common in patients with neurological or vestibular diseases. Telerehabilitation program is a treatment to be as safe as conventional treatment. One of the most used methods to perform tel...

    Authors: Marcos Maldonado-Díaz, Patricia Vargas, Ricardo Vasquez, Felipe Gonzalez-Seguel, Betel Rivero, Viviane Hidalgo-Cabalín and Tania Gutierrez-Panchana

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:83

    Content type: Research

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  29. The Square Stepping Exercise (SSE) is an exercise training program incorporating cognitive and physical exercise components, which was originally developed for older adults to reduce falling risks. SSE’s poten...

    Authors: Masato Kawabata, Su Ren Gan, Gint Goh, Siti Aisha Binte Omar, Ivan T. F. Oh, Wan Qi Wee and Tomohiro Okura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:82

    Content type: Research

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  30. Representation of people with disabilities in fitness centres is lacking, despite initiatives to promote inclusion mainly in the UK and USA. Success creating these inclusive spaces is mixed and few were crafte...

    Authors: Helene Nikolajsen, Emma Victoria Richardson, Louise Fleng Sandal, Birgit Juul-Kristensen and Jens Troelsen

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:81

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Even though the importance of preparing patients for a surgical event is recognized, there are still gaps about the benefit of improving functional capacity by walking during the waiting time among patients sc...

    Authors: Olga L. Cortés, Mauricio Herrera-Galindo, Claudia Becerra, Mónica Rincón-Roncancio, Camilo Povea-Combariza and Maribel Esparza-Bohorquez

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:80

    Content type: Research

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  32. Rehabilitation plays an important role in the management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and current guidelines recommend implementation of a monitored individualized exercise training p...

    Authors: Mariusz Wojciuk, Mariusz Ciolkiewicz, Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Sylwia Chwiesko-Minarowska, Emilia Sawicka, Katarzyna Ptaszynska-Kopczynska and Karol Kaminski

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:79

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Exercise is often used to obtain a negative energy balance. However, its effects on body weight reduction are usually below expectations. One possible explanation is a reduction in spontaneous physical activit...

    Authors: Ana Carolina Silvares Quintanilha, Izabelle Dias Benfato, Robson Luiz Oliveira Santos, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes and Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:78

    Content type: Research

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  34. The fact that kinesio tape may be capable to enhance muscle power would qualify it as practical tool to be considered during passive warm-up (WU) or coupled with active WU processes prior to power-based perfor...

    Authors: Alessio Rossi, Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Giampietro Alberti, Fabio Esposito, Fabio D’Angelo and Athos Trecroci

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:77

    Content type: Research

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  35. Studies investigating postural orientation in uninjured youth athletes are scarce. Understanding how postural orientation during functional performance tests change with age in uninjured athletes has the poten...

    Authors: Sofia Ryman Augustsson, Jenny Nae, Magnus Karlsson, Tomas Peterson, Per Wollmer and Eva Ageberg

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:76

    Content type: Research

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  36. To evaluate cycling participation and identify barriers and facilitators related to cycling participation in people with a lower limb amputation (LLA) in the Netherlands.

    Authors: Jutamanee Poonsiri, Rienk Dekker, Pieter U. Dijkstra, Juha M. Hijmans and Jan H. B. Geertzen

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:75

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Authors: Miyuki Hori, Tadashi Suga, Masafumi Terada, Takahiro Tanaka, Yuki Kusagawa, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano and Tadao Isaka

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:74

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:67

  38. Most injuries in track and field are caused by overuse with conflicting reports concerning the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how biomechanical and clinical factors relate to ...

    Authors: Andreas Lundberg Zachrisson, Andreas Ivarsson, Pia Desai, Jon Karlsson and Stefan Grau

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:73

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The Unilateral Seated Shot-Put Test (USSPT) consists of pushing an overweight ball as far as possible to assess upper extremity power unilaterally and bilateral symmetry. Literature however reports various bod...

    Authors: Matthieu Degot, Yoann Blache, Grégory Vigne, Gabriel Franger, Lionel Neyton and Isabelle Rogowski

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:72

    Content type: Technical advance

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  40. The “FIFA 11 + Shoulder” programme has been reported to reduce the incidence of upper extremity injuries among soccer goalkeepers. It has also been recommended for overhead sports. The purpose of this study wa...

    Authors: Mostafa Zarei, Saeed Eshghi and Mahdi Hosseinzadeh

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:71

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The knowledge of the long-term consequences of covid-19 is limited. In patients, symptoms such as fatigue, decreased physical, psychological, and cognitive function, and nutritional problems have been reported...

    Authors: E. Rydwik, L. Anmyr, M. Regardt, A. McAllister, R. Zarenoe, E. Åkerman, Y. Orrevall, M. Bragesjö, O. Dahl, M. K. Kemani, L. Nordstrand, U. Ekman, L. Holmström and M. Nygren-Bonnier

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:70

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Regular physical activity and exercise provide many health benefits. These health benefits are mediated in large part through cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength. As most individuals have not had a...

    Authors: James T. Langland, Neeraj Sathnur, Qi Wang and Andrew P. J. Olson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:69

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Bodybuilding is a competitive endeavor where a combination of muscle size, symmetry, “conditioning” (low body fat levels), and stage presentation are judged. Success in bodybuilding requires that competitors a...

    Authors: Guillermo Escalante, Scott W. Stevenson, Christopher Barakat, Alan A. Aragon and Brad J. Schoenfeld

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:68

    Content type: Review

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  44. This study examined the relationships of knee extensor strength and quadriceps femoris size with sprint performance in sprinters.

    Authors: Miyuki Hori, Tadashi Suga, Masafumi Terada, Takahiro Tanaka, Yuki Kusagawa, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano and Tadao Isaka

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:74

  45. Sports should endeavour to provide inclusive opportunities for all people to participate. More evidence is required to understand who joins sports clubs and what keeps participants engaged throughout their lif...

    Authors: Bridget C. Foley, Catriona Rose, Katherine B. Owen and Lindsey J. Reece

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:59

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The Single Leg Squat test (SLS) is a common tool used in clinical examination to set and evaluate rehabilitation goals, but there is not one established SLS test used in the clinic. Based on previous scientifi...

    Authors: John Ressman, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas Grooten and Eva Rasmussen-Barr

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. American football players need the ability to provide maximal muscular power in a modicum of time. Postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE), which is characterized by an acute improvement of a performance...

    Authors: Robert Bielitzki, Daniel Hamacher and Astrid Zech

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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