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  1. Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are leading causes of mortality. These conditions are also known as chronic diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. Physical activity (PA) is a main factor to...

    Authors: Giovanni Iolascon, Francesca Gimigliano, Gioconda Di Pietro, Antimo Moretti, Marco Paoletta, Matteo Rivezzi, Alessandro Distante and Prisco Piscitelli
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:60
  2. Throughout the ecosystem of sport, women have been and continue to be underrepresented at all levels compared to men. The capacity of community-level sport is heavily reliant on the many non-player roles inclu...

    Authors: R Eime, M Charity, B. C Foley, J Fowlie and L. J Reece
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:58
  3. One potential reason for disparate outcomes of exercise for Achilles tendinopathy is poor knowledge about whether exercise parameters (i.e. different exercise doses) influence outcome. Whether parameters that ...

    Authors: Fatmah Hasani, Terry Haines, Shannon E. Munteanu, Peter Schoch, Bill Vicenzino and Peter Malliaras
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:57
  4. We assessed the effects of gender, in association with a four-week small-sided games (SSGs) training program, during Ramadan intermitting fasting (RIF) on changes in psychometric and physiological markers in p...

    Authors: Seifeddine Brini, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman, Cain C. T. Clark, Sghaeir Zouita, Anthony C. Hackney, Karuppasamy Govindasamy, Urs Granacher and Hassane Zouhal
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:56
  5. A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers...

    Authors: Marja Päivinen, Kari Keskinen and Heikki Tikkanen
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:55
  6. The technical and tactical diagnosis of table tennis is extremely important in the preparation for competition which is complicated by an apparent nonlinear relationship between athletes’ performance and their...

    Authors: Wenwen Huang, Miaomiao Lu, Yuxuan Zeng, Mengyue Hu and Yi Xiao
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:54
  7. Basketball is the most popular sport in Lebanon. Adequate nutrition has been established to be a key component of optimal athletic performance, recovery from exercise and exercise-induced injury and documented...

    Authors: Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh, Catherine el Hage and Antoine Farhat
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:53
  8. Surfing is a popular sport in Australia, accounting for nearly 10% of the population. External auditory exostosis (EAE), also referred to as surfer’s ear, is recognized as a potentially serious complication of...

    Authors: Vini Simas, Wayne Hing, Evelyne Rathbone, Rodney Pope and Mike Climstein
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:52
  9. High levels of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induce apoptosis and pro-inflammatory effects for primary degeneration of tendon and development of tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate...

    Authors: Lucas Rafael Lopes, Vitor Almeida Ribeiro de Miranda, João Antonio Matheus Guimarães, Gabriel Garcez de Araujo Souza, Victor Soares Wainchtock, João Alves Grangeiro Neto, Rodrigo de Araújo Goes and Jamila Alessandra Perini
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:51
  10. The aim of this study was to analyze the consumption of sports supplements (SS) in competitive level fencers and compare differences based on sex and competitive level (international and national).

    Authors: Fernando Mata, Raúl Domínguez, Álvaro López-Samanes, Ángela Sánchez-Gómez, Pablo Jodra and Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:50
  11. Athletes who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often exhibit persistent altered biomechanics and impaired function. Neuromuscular training programs appear to be effective for reduc...

    Authors: Mohamad Ghaderi, Amir Letafatkar, Abbey C. Thomas and Sohrab Keyhani
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:49
  12. Omega3 fatty acids as a ligand of energy-related genes, have a role in metabolism, and energy expenditure. These effects are due to changes in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

    Authors: Sara Moradi, Mohamadreza Alivand, Yaser KhajeBishak, Mohamad AsghariJafarabadi, Maedeh Alipour, Philip D. Chilibeck and Beitullah Alipour
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:48
  13. The ECA2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis is shown to be involved in effects mediated by physical exercise, as it can induce the release of nitric oxide (ON) and bradykinin (BK), which are potent vasodilators. The vasodilat...

    Authors: Samara Silva de Moura, Adália Táci Pereira Mendes, Francisco de Assis Dias Martins-Júnior, Nádia Lúcia Totou, Daniel Barbosa Coelho, Emerson Cruz de Oliveira, Daisy Motta-Santos, Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos and Lenice Kappes Becker
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:47
  14. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how an athlete’s participation in either an individual or team sport is related to their attitude toward sport psychology consulting and their willingness to...

    Authors: Dáire Rooney, Robin C. Jackson and Neil Heron
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:46
  15. Compared with the normal adult population, athletes of several sport disciplines, such as endurance sports, ball sports, cycling and swimming, have higher use of over-the-counter analgesics (OTC analgesics). T...

    Authors: Lisa Hager, Beate Averbeck, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage and Dieter F. Kutz
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:45
  16. Excessive unilateral joint loads may lead to overuse disorders. Bilateral training in archery is only performed as a supportive coordination training and as a variation of typical exercise. However, a series o...

    Authors: Mareike Schmitt, Lutz Vogt, Jan Wilke and Daniel Niederer
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:44
  17. Self-myofascial release is an emerging technique in strength and conditioning. Yet, there is no consensus regarding optimal practice guidelines. Here, we investigated the acute effects of various foam rolling ...

    Authors: Yann Kerautret, Aymeric Guillot, Carole Eyssautier, Guillaume Gibert and Franck Di Rienzo
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:43
  18. The value of social support in enhancing performance is well established in non-impaired and sub-international level athletes with impairments. Despite this, no research to date has explored the experiences of...

    Authors: Beth Aitchison, Alison B. Rushton, Paul Martin, Andrew Soundy and Nicola R. Heneghan
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:42
  19. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been adopted as an important component of preparticipation cardiovascular screening. However, there are still controversies in the screening and few studies with a large...

    Authors: Xu Wen, Yu-min Huang, Tong-Hui Shen, Ying-Lan Gong, Rui-qing Dong, Ling Xia and Tian-sheng Xie
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:41
  20. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) often coincide with improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in liver fat content. However, there are limited data concerning the rela...

    Authors: Angelo Sabag, Shelley E. Keating, Kimberley L. Way, Rachelle N. Sultana, Sean M. Lanting, Stephen M. Twigg and Nathan A. Johnson
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:40
  21. Rapid weight loss (RWL) is commonly practiced in combat sports. Both magnitude and methods used to induce RWL are largely similar among combat sports, but currently, there is no data on RWL methodology used by...

    Authors: Patrik Drid, Flavia Figlioli, Nemanja Lakicevic, Ambra Gentile, Valdemar Stajer, Bojan Raskovic, Nina Vojvodic, Roberto Roklicer, Tatjana Trivic, Sergey Tabakov, Sergey Eliseev and Antonino Bianco
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:39
  22. When planning rehabilitation and conditioning for performance enhancement and a return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, identifying the elements of physical function associated with s...

    Authors: Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Shunsuke Ohji, Takehiro Ohmi, Sho Mitomo, Hideyuki Koga and Kazuyoshi Yagishita
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:38
  23. This study aimed to determine the relationships between athletic identity and sport commitment and return to sports (RTS) status in athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

    Authors: Shunsuke Ohji, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Sho Mitomo, Takehiro Ohmi, Tetsuya Jinno, Hideyuki Koga and Kazuyoshi Yagishita
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:37
  24. We aimed to examine the effect of a high-intensity exercise bout on landing biomechanics in soccer players who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and non-injured soccer players during a...

    Authors: Ahmad Dhahawi Alanazi, Katy Mitchell, Toni Roddey, Aqeel M. Alenazi, Msaad M. Alzhrani, Ahmed M. Almansour and Alexis Ortiz-Rodriguez
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:36
  25. Therapeutic training is the most commonly used treatment methods for chronic low back pain (CLBP), and the use of a pressure biofeedback unit for transversus abdominis muscle (TrA) training is one of the core ...

    Authors: Changming Xu, Zhiwei Fu and Xueqiang Wang
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:35
  26. Anti-gravity treadmills are used to decrease musculoskeletal loading during treadmill running often in return to play rehabilitation programs. The effect different gradients (uphill/downhill running) have on k...

    Authors: Athol Thomson, Rodney Whiteley, Clint Hansen, Julius Welzel, Sebastien Racinais and Mathew G. Wilson
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:34
  27. Substantial postoperative complications occur after tumor resection for esophagogastric cancers. Physical prehabilitation programs aim to prepare patients for surgery by improving their functional status with ...

    Authors: Elise Piraux, Gregory Reychler, Louise Maertens de Noordhout, Patrice Forget, Yannick Deswysen and Gilles Caty
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:33
  28. Our previous study on the 2016/2017 Serie A season showed that a greater likelihood of reaching the top positions in the Italian league “Serie A” seemed to be mainly related to sprint activity, goal attempts, ...

    Authors: Umile Giuseppe Longo, Francesco Sofi, Vincenzo Candela, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Giuditta Pagliai, Carlo Massaroni, Emiliano Schena, Matteo Cimmino, Fabrizio D’Ancona and Vincenzo Denaro
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:32
  29. Studies on the benefits of lower extremity compression garments (CGs) have focused on their effects on post-exercise recovery and performance improvement. Less is known about why athletes actually use CGs, the...

    Authors: Thierry P. C. Franke, Frank J. G. Backx and Bionka M. A. Huisstede
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:31
  30. One of the types of doping that is commonly used by bodybuilders, is androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). The use of AAS besides violating sporting ethics would have serious consequences on physical and mental ...

    Authors: Zohreh Manoochehri, Majid Barati, Javad Faradmal and Sara Manoochehri
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:30
  31. Earlier studies have shown that balance training (BT) has the potential to induce performance enhancements in selected components of physical fitness (i.e., balance, muscle strength, power, speed). While there...

    Authors: Raouf Hammami, Helmi Chaabene, Fatma Kharrat, Hanen Werfelli, Michael Duncan, Haithem Rebai and Urs Granacher
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:29
  32. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common condition following an ankle sprain. This study investigated the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) and shoe with an unstable surface training on balance, functio...

    Authors: Farideh Shamseddini Sofla, Mohammad Hadadi, Iman Rezaei, Negar Azhdari and Sobhan Sobhani
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:28
  33. EEGs are frequently employed to measure cerebral activations during physical exercise or in response to specific physical tasks. However, few studies have attempted to understand how exercise-state brain activ...

    Authors: Ming-An Lin, Ling-Fu Meng, Yuan Ouyang, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ya-Ju Chang, Szi-Wen Chen and Jiunn-Woei Liaw
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:27
  34. Although shadow pitching, commonly called “towel drill,” is recommended to improve the throwing motion for the rehabilitation of pitching disorders before the initiation of a throwing program aimed at returnin...

    Authors: Shigeaki Miyazaki, Go Yamako, Koji Totoribe, Tomohisa Sekimoto, Yuko Kadowaki, Kurumi Tsuruta and Etsuo Chosa
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:26
  35. Obesity is a major health concern in western countries. In Norway, patients with obesity can attend weight-loss programmes, which focus on changes in dietary and physical activity habits. Use of self-monitorin...

    Authors: Ingrid S. Følling, Line M. Oldervoll, Christina Hilmarsen and Ellen M. I. Ersfjord
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:25
  36. The aim of the study was the assessment of the early impact of the selected kinesiotaping technique on the static stability of the knee joint in patients with ACL rupture on the basis of stabilographic paramet...

    Authors: Katarzyna Ogrodzka-Ciechanowicz, Grzegorz Głąb, Jakub Ślusarski, Artur Gądek and Jolanta Nawara
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:24
  37. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of 4 weeks of balance exercise compared with no intervention on objectively measured postural sway.

    Authors: Niklas Sörlén, Andreas Hult, Peter Nordström, Anna Nordström and Jonas Johansson
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:23
  38. In the past few decades, swimming became one of the most important physical activities within the health system and is considered a practical nonpharmacological approach to managing of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), ...

    Authors: Jamal Shaker Omar, Nidal Jaradat, Mohammad Qadoumi and Abdel Naser Qadoumi
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:22
  39. Diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is still a challenge. An increase in intramuscular pressure during and following exercise is accepted as the diagnostic standard. However, neither the ...

    Authors: Heinz Lohrer, Jochen Klein, Tanja Nauck and Tobias Schönberg
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:21
  40. It is unknown how diaphragm training combined with electrical stimulation affects pain, function, static stability, and balance in athletes with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This study aimed to explore the ef...

    Authors: Khadijeh Otadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Shahriar Sharify, Zahra Fakhari, Hadi Sarafraz, Amir Aria and Omid Rasouli
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:20
  41. To assess physical activity (PA), a comparative measurement – evaluating one’s own PA compared to others – may be an appropriate method. In previous studies, the use of comparative measurements led to an effec...

    Authors: Katharina Diehl, Alessia Brassat and Jennifer Hilger-Kolb
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:19
  42. The effect of exercise on the microvasculature of patients with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT; EndoPAT), is unknown. T...

    Authors: Massimo Nardone, Steven Miner, Mary McCarthy and Heather Edgell
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:18
  43. Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have problems in everyday tasks such as walking and climbing stairs due to a combination of neuromuscular impairments such as spasticity, muscle weakness, reduced joint fle...

    Authors: Pedro Valadão, Harri Piitulainen, Eero A. Haapala, Tiina Parviainen, Janne Avela and Taija Finni
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:17
  44. Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between...

    Authors: Marja A. Heiskanen, Sanna M. Honkala, Jaakko Hentilä, Ronja Ojala, Riikka Lautamäki, Kalle Koskensalo, Martin S. Lietzén, Virva Saunavaara, Jani Saunavaara, Mika Helmiö, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Lauri Nummenmaa, Maria C. Collado, Tarja Malm, Leo Lahti, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen…
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:16
  45. Physical training is recommended in various national and international guidelines for patients with cancer. Observational studies have shown that physical activity leads to reduced recurrence and mortality rat...

    Authors: Roberto Falz, René Thieme, Uwe Tegtbur, Christian Bischoff, Christian Leps, Peter Hillemanns, Kay Kohlhaw, Jürgen Klempnauer, Florian Lordick, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Bahriye Aktas, Jürgen Weitz, Ulrich Bork, Pauline Wimberger, Christian Thomas, Ronald Biemann…
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:15
  46. Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most promising areas in medicine with many possibilities for improving health and wellness. Already today, diagnostic decision support systems may help patients to es...

    Authors: Lia Rigamonti, Katharina Estel, Tobias Gehlen, Bernd Wolfarth, James B. Lawrence and David A. Back
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:13
  47. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of blood flow restriction (BFR) to low-load (LL) resistance exercise leads to elevated levels of muscle hypertrophy and strength gains. In terms of main und...

    Authors: Benedikt Lauber, Daniel König, Albert Gollhofer and Christoph Centner
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:12
  48. Gymnastics training enhances the development of postural control in children and adolescents. In competitive gymnastics, the training regimen is specific to the given gymnastic discipline and is usually follow...

    Authors: Agnieszka Opala-Berdzik, Magdalena Głowacka and Grzegorz Juras
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:11
  49. Generalized joint hypermobility is defined as an excessive range of motion in several joints. Having joint hypermobility is not a pathology, but when associated with pain and other symptoms, it might affect he...

    Authors: Gere Luder, Daniel Aeberli, Christine Mueller Mebes, Bettina Haupt-Bertschy, Jean-Pierre Baeyens and Martin L. Verra
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:10

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